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hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in humans and vertebrate animals. Glucocorticoids are steroids and are characterized by the presence of HO— or Glucocorticoids at the 11th and 17th carbohydrate atoms. Formation of glucocorticoids is .stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.

The principal glucocorticoids are hydrocortisone (cortisol) and cortisone. Glucocorticoids exert influence on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, promote the formation of glucose and the synthesis of glycogen from proteins in the liver (gluconeogenesis), and retard the biosynthesis of high-molecular-weight fatty acids. Absence of glucocorticoids lowers the body’s resistance. During the action of unfavorable factors (trauma, blood loss, and some other states of stress), secretion of glucocorticoids increases. Glucocorticoids decrease the permeability of the capillaries and decelerate the development of allergic inflammations. Glucocorticoids and a number of their synthetic analogues (prednisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone) are used in medicine as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, since they retard protein synthesis and accelerate its decomposition. Their prolonged use is contraindicated because the body develops a negative nitrogen balance and the healing of wounds, ulcers, and so on is retarded. In children, delayed development and cessation of growth are observed with prolonged use of these hormones. A number of glucocorticoids and their synthetic derivatives possess to some degree the properties of mineral corticoids: they cause retention of sodium in the tissues and hypokalemia.


Iudaev, N. A. “Svoistva, funktsii i obmen steroidnykh gormonov kory nadpochechnikov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy protsessov zhiznedeiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1962.
Berzin, T. Biokhimiia gormonov. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Leites, S. M., and N. N. Lapteva. Ocherki po patofiziologii obmena veshchestv i endokrinnoi sistemy. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Group D patients received 8 mg (2 mL) of intravenous dexamethasone injection.
However, treatment with either Cymerus MSCs alone, or Cymerus MSCs in combination with dexamethasone, resulted in a substantially greater suppression of AHR, which was significantly superior to that seen with dexamethasone treatment alone (p<0.
Empliciti (elotuzumab) is approved in the US in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received one to three prior therapies
Grossi GB et al found no difference in post operative discomfort between two different doses of dexamethasone i.
Keywords: Corticosteroid, dexamethasone, testicular injury, seminiferous tubules, magnesium sulphate.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of dexamethasone with lidocaine hydrochloride for the treatment of patients with PF.
NEJM Journal Watch's reported global monthly readership is half a million; [3] the concomitant pressures of drug company direct marketing are significant; and the fact that studies have shown equivalence between 5 days of prednisone and two doses of dexamethasone could easily be confused with this result.
Here, we report a case with bilateral refractory ME secondary to RP which dramatically improved within the week following dexamethasone implant.
1) The studies used dexamethasone, prednisolone, prednisone, and budesonide delivered by oral, inhaled, intravenous (IV), or intramuscular (IM) routes, ranging between a one-day dose to a 5-day taper.
Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, after obtaining informed consent from parents or legal guardians, 42 children undergoing surgical treatment of hypospadias were randomized in two groups to receive either IV dexamethasone 0.
Many treatment modalities have been used to treat it, including acetazolamide and dexamethasone.
Moreover, considerable evidence has demonstrated that dexamethasone causes apoptosis of islet cells [2, 6], which is implicated in the activation of glucocorticoid receptors and calcineurin, and causes an imbalance in the anti- and proapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and BAD, respectively.