Diachrony

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Diachrony

 

(1) A set of methods of linguistics intended for the analysis of the historical development of a language.

(2) The corresponding area of general linguistics, which is opposed to synchrony. According to F. de Saussure, the subject of diachronic linguistics is the relations that connect elements in a historical sequence that is not perceived by one and the same collective consciousness—the elements replacing one another but not forming a system. The subject of synchronic linguistics is the logical and psychological relations that connect coexisting elements and form a system (how these elements are perceived by one and the same collective consciousness). C. Bally accepted Saussure’s view of synchrony and diachrony. The majority of linguists, while accepting the opposition of synchrony and diachrony itself, reject its absoluteness (the Swiss scholar A. Sechahaye, the Belgian scholar E. Buyssens, E. Coseriu). N. S. Trubetzkoy, R. O. Jakobson, and others, following Baudouin de Courtenay, believe that diachronic study does not exclude the concept of system and that synchronic description cannot entirely exclude the concept of evolution. Most modern linguists share this opinion. From the very beginning, the categorical nature of the opposition of synchrony and diachrony has been alien to Russian linguists, although this opposition is, in itself, justified as a methodological technique.

REFERENCES

O sootnoshenii sinkhronnogo analiza i istoricheskogo izucheniia iazykov. Moscow, 1960.
Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Coseriu, E. “Sinkhroniia, diakhroniia i istoriia.” In the collection Novoe v linqvistike, issue 3. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Problemy razvitiia iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)

A. A. LEONT’EV

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Cyprus, the Sea and the Lighhouses: a Diachronic History
When compared to diachronic changes, dialectal changes are more difficult to identify; because they are often phonological, simply involving the shift of a vowel, they frequently do not create detectable errors.
And this reconstructs an isomorphic objection to (a) above: Just like its diachronic counterpart, the synchronic money pump also trades on rare circumstances.
Likewise, it offers an outlook on current ongoing linguistic changes in the English verb phrase with the aim of promoting the use of corpora in language change studies, and also encouraging researchers to develop more investigations with methodologies used in diachronic linguistics so as to hypothesize new theories on the rapid language change process English is undergoing nowadays.
The application of this semantic conceptual integration framework to the diachronic language material proves rewarding, yet we believe that apart from the corpus material, the author should have referred to the dictionary material, e.
Another somewhat related issue, not mentioned by Lestrade himself, is whether a diachronic map should represent the number of languages in which the diachronic change presumed to be responsible for a synchronic pattern has actually been historically observed.
More specifically, in the end, I shall (1) offer a brief in support of a conception of self-experience that is complicatedly Diachronic and Episodic, one that also puts special emphasis on the self's elusive, ungraspable, but somehow readily available nature.
In the present paper, "Prototypes in Semantic Change: A Diachronic Perspective on Abstract Nouns" (300-31), she intends to extend the diachronic perspective to Modern English in order to see whether the pattern of increasing subjectification in semantic change is still discernible in the field of cognition.
The paper sets out some 30 diachronic sound-changes, and these are supported by some 90 impeccable etymologies.
Such an infallible teaching is thus objectively set forth by the whole episcopal body, understood in a diachronic and not necessarily merely synchronic sense.
However, although the notion of a dialect continuum throughout the Iberian Peninsula and the influence of dialect mixing is highly relevant, Castilian and its innovative diachronic development are the main focus of study, with American Spanish also being analysed.
ERIC Descriptors: Grammar; Linguistics; Semitic Languages; Language Research; Arabs; English (Second Language); Second Language Learning; Vocabulary; Translation; Diachronic Linguistics