Additionally, it is apparent that the dialysate
bicarbonate levels used by our center were slightly lower than those reported by most centers worldwide.
As a dialysate
exchange tool, an APD machine must possess accurate measurement and temperature control of the injected liquid.
Seven studies (Apsner et al., 2005; Buturovic et al., 2008; Gubensek et al., 2007; Buturovic-Ponikvar et al., 2005; Singer et al., 2016; Strobl et al., 2013; Wright et al., 2011) and one arm from four other trials (Apsner et al., 2001; Buturovic-Ponikvar et al., 2008a; Evenepoel et al., 2007; Richtrova et al., 2011) studied the effectiveness and safety of RCA with calcium-free dialysate
, which includes 2488 dialysis sessions performed on 274 patients
and substitution fluids for patients treated by continuous forms of renal replacement therapy.
To create dialysate
, treated water is mixed with acid and base concentrates in a defined ratio.
Based on the elevated TG concentration he underwent a CT scan with contrast of the abdomen and a second dialysate
sample was sent for cell count, TG, cytology, and flow cytometry (the dialysate
was no longer cloudy).
Water and dialysate
samples were obtained through a collaboration program between National Institute for Quality Control in Health (INCQS/FIOCRUZ), Sanitary Surveillance of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Superintendence of Zoonosis Control, and Sanitary Surveillance of the City of Rio de Janeiro.
All other microbiological techniques and estimation of lipolytic activity in cell-free culture dialysate
(x10) were as mentioned before.
Dialysis settings were modified to reduce the dialysis dose in an attempt to prevent DDS and were as follows: H6 dialyzer (Gambro; surface area 0.6 [m.sup.2], KUF 33 mL/(h-mmHg)), dialysate
sodium 148 mmol/L, potassium 2 mmol/L, bicarbonate 38 mmol/L, calcium 1.5 mmol/L, magnesium 0.5 mmol/L, and low dialysate
flow at 300mL/min and blood flow 150 mL/min with concurrent flows to reduce dialysis efficiency.
With this objective, 250 mL was removed from 5 liter-Dialisan (Gambro) solution and 250 mL 20% albumin solution was added instead; thus, 5 L dialysate
containing 1% albumin was prepared.
Patient was advised to do 4 exchanges during daytime by using dialysate
volume of 2 litres, and keeping night time "dry".
During phase 2 (dwell), the tonicity of the solution pulls wastes and excess fluid from the capillary blood through the lining of the semi-permeable peritoneal membrane into the dialysate
(Headley, 2014; Krediet, 2013; Saxena, 2014).