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(dīərē`ə), frequent discharge of watery feces from the intestines, sometimes containing blood and mucus. It can be caused by excessive indulgence in alcohol or other liquids or foods that prove irritating to the stomach or intestine, by allergy to certain food products, by poisoning with heavy metals, by chemicals such as are found in cathartics, by hyperactivity of the nervous system, and by infection with a virus (intestinal grippe) or with bacteria or their toxins. Diarrhea is a concomitant of many infectious diseases, especially typhoid fevertyphoid fever
acute, generalized infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The main sources of infection are contaminated water or milk and, especially in urban communities, food handlers who are carriers.
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, bacillary or amebic dysenterydysentery
, inflammation of the intestine characterized by the frequent passage of feces, usually with blood and mucus. The two most common causes of dysentery are infection with a bacillus (see bacteria) of the Shigella group, and infestation by an ameba,
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, and choleracholera
or Asiatic cholera,
acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by bacteriophages. The bacteria, which are found in fecal-contaminated food and water and in raw or undercooked seafood, produce a
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. Persistent diarrhea may result in severe dehydration and shock. It is therefore necessary to replace the fluid lost by the body. Treatment is with a bland diet and drugs that will decrease the activity of the intestines, as well as with specific measures directed at the underlying cause. The elderly are at especially high risk for diarrheal deaths caused by viruses. Ulcerative colitis is an inflamatory and ulcerative disease of the colon, properly described as "irritable bowl," and characterized by bloody diarrhea. Crohn's disease affects the distal ileum and colon, but may occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus and perianal area. The symptoms are chronic diarrhea associated with abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weight loss, and a mass or fullness in the right lower quadrant (of the abdomen).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



frequent excretion of liquid intestinal contents. Diarrhea is the main symptom of such acute bacterial and viral intestinal diseases as dysentery, food poisonings, and colienteritis, as well as of cholera, intestinal invasions, and other inflammatory intestinal diseases. It can also be a symptom of chronic lesions of other digestive organs, for example, the stomach and pancreas; of general chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis; and of acute and chronic poisonings of exogenous (as from heavy metals) and endogenous (from renal insufficiency) origin. Diarrhea may also result from metabolic disturbances, from ingestion of excessive or coarse food, or from neuroses. In addition, it occurs in infantile, fermentative, and putrefactive dyspepsia.

The development of diarrhea is related to the liquefaction of the intestinal contents owing to an inflammatory exudate or to an accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen when the fluid’s absorption is hindered. The intestinal contents move more rapidly, stimulated by the prostaglandins, and there is a change in the transport of sodium and other electrolytes as well as osmotic shifts in the intestine. False, or constipation, diarrhea is a secondary liquefaction of the intestinal contents during prolonged constipation; a small quantity of liquid feces is excreted frequently.

The diagnosis of diarrhea varies with the disease and is based on the medical history and on examination of the feces. Therapy consists of treatment of the basic disease; special diets, antiinfectives, astringents, and enzymes are prescribed for symptomatic relief.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The passage of loose or watery stools, usually at more frequent than normal intervals.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(esp US), diarrhea
frequent and copious discharge of abnormally liquid faeces
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Group A received racecadotril (1.5mg/kg body weight, orally three times a day for 5 days or until diarrhea stopped whichever came first] along with low osmolality oral rehydration solution and group B received low osmolality oral rehydration solution and a placebo.
[4] To intensify efforts to achieve MDGs, the WHO/UNICEF introduced Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD), which said that commitment to ensure 80% of world's children having access to interventions and immunization to 90% of children will ensure elimination of diarrhea by 2025.
* Hence total children included were 363 in total amongst whom 121were cases with diarrhea and 242 were healthy controls (children without diarrhea) keeping cases to control ratio as 1:2.
Diarrhea that starts while switching to a new food may indicate you made the switch too fast for your cat.
People who have consumed gluten may experience loose stools and diarrhea. Other symptoms include:
He further said the doctor should ask the mother about the child's usual diet and about the food the child has received since diarrhea began.
The results of the trial showed that the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea for the 137 patients who received the loperamide prophylaxis was 30.7% and that for the 137 patients in this cohort, 20.4% discontinued neratinib due to diarrhea.
Rota-virus vaccine is already saving lives and Improvement health in the countries where they are in use, with the countries reporting swift and significant reduction in cases of severe diarrhea.
A number of studies in Ghana have examined diarrhea trends and morbidity outcomes in relation to environmental, pediatric rotavirus, and behavioral factors [15-18].
Addressing a seminar on 'Clinical Manifestations and Management of Diarrhea,' jointly organized by Departments of Paediatrics and Continuing Medical Education of Baqai Medical University, he said diarrhea, the second major cause of child mortality in Pakistan needed special care.