When chlorine binds to water contaminants, it forms chemicals such as dichloramine
To complement the exposure assessment, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the pool waters in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and screened for DBPs, comprehensively identifying most DBPs detected and quantifying a few targeted DBPs and disinfectant species (THMs, chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine
, and trichloramine) in the pool waters and in the air phase above the water (THMs and trichloramine).
They include monochloramine, dichloramine
, and trichloramine.
In potable water, chloramines can take on various forms: monochloramine, dichloramine
These compounds first destroy free chlorine and then monochloroamine followed by dichloramine
and finally trichloramine, if any is present.
Thus, the effects of hypochlorous acid versus the hypochlorite anion could be distinguished for free chlorine; similarly, the dichloramine
impacts (low pH) could be assessed relative to the monochloramine (high pH) (ref.
is more volatile and more irritating to the respiratory system than monochloramine, but it does not persist as a vapor in the air (2) and decomposes rapidly in water.
A single value for free chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine
, and trichloramine was obtained for each participant as measured by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) procedure with a portable photometer (DINKO Instruments, Inc.
Trichloramine is more volatile than monochloramine and dichloramine
and is released into the air more readily.
The organic compounds that form when chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in the water or wastewater include monochloramine, dichloramine
, or trichloramine (depending on pH), and trihalomethanes, known as THMs.
This was done to enhance the formation of monochloramine and to minimize the formation of dichloramine
and trichloramine, which are the more severe taste and odor causing chloramine species.
In reaction with protein amino acid residues HOCl forms unstable mono- and dichloramines
, which rapidly decompose forming aldehydes.