First, we summarize published examples of dichogamous
Our literature search revealed 41 dichogamous species with male- or
evolved or optimal direction of gender biases in dichogamous plants,
Sexual selection in dichogamous plants with gender-biased nectar
Dichogamous systems would appear to be advantageous for species where geitonogamy may "clog" stigmatic surfaces with self-pollen (Bawa & Opler, 1975; Yeo, 1975), thereby preventing outcrossed pollen from reaching the stigmatic surface.
These dichogamous mechanisms would clearly serve to restrict self-pollination.
Dioecious species that evolved via the gynodioecy route typically are not dichogamous (Cruden, 1988); they do not have preexisting devices for the avoidance of inbreeding.