"The discovery of Lisowicia changes our ideas about the latest history of dicynodonts, mammal Triassic relatives.
"Dicynodonts were amazingly successful animals in the Middle and Late Triassic.
The discovery of Lisowicia provides the first evidence that mammal-like elephant sized dicynodonts were present at the same time as the more well-known long-necked sauropodomorph dinosaurs, contrary to previous belief.
Kammerer said that while dicynodonts
and dinosaurs existed at the same time, there's no evidence yet that they lived in the same habitats.
Among dicynodonts, longitudinal nasofrontal ridges are known in several genera (Lystrosaurus, Van Hoepen 1913; Cluver 1971; Pristerodon, Barry 1967; Kingoria, Kemp 1969).
Dicynodonts are the first group of therapsids to develop a secondary palate.
The nasal cavity of gorgonopsians is much larger than in dicynodonts, but like pelycosaurs and other primitive therapsids, they lack a bony secondary palate.
The pattern of nasal turbinal ridges in therapsids indicates that the ventilation rates of the more primitive groups (dinocephalians, dicynodonts, and gorgonopsians) probably had not yet increased significantly beyond ancestral rates.
But dicynodonts were thought to have died out before the late Triassic period, by which time dinosaurs had become the dominant land creature.
Analysis of limb bones discovered in the Polish village of Lisowice shows the creature -- named Lisowicia bojani -- lived around 210-205 million years ago -- around 10 million years later than previous findings of dicynodonts.
"Dicynodonts were amazingly successful animals in the Middle and Late Triassic," said Grzegorz Niedzwiedzki from Sweden's Uppsala University.