Resistance to DDT was first recognised in 19575 and subsequently to dieldrin
in 1960 (6), and then to malathion in 1976 (7).
The other three OC pesticides including aldrin, dieldrin
, and endrin were measured only in NHANES 2001-2002 and NHANES 2003-2004 data cycles.
The Convention currently lists twelve POPs (aldrin, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin
, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlordecone, hexabromobiphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF).
The persistent insecticide dieldrin
, banned in the United States, provoked a more dramatic increase.
EPA reports chemicals of concern identified in the soil include arsenic, lead, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), aldrin, dieldrin
, endrin, and endrin ketone.
OBJECTIVES: We exposed undifferentiated and differentiating neuronotypic PC12 cells to different organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion), a carbamate (physostigmine), an organochlorine (dieldrin
), and a metal (divalent nickel; [Ni.sup.2+]) and examined indices of cell replication and differentiation for both short- and long-term exposures.
- Substances covered by both Conventions: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin
, dioxins, endrin, furans, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene (also called camphechlor),
They found levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene and dieldrin
were "significantly higher" in farmed salmon than in wild salmon.
At a United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) meeting in Montreal this week, representatives of 92 nations began a process to enact similar global controls on 12 of those POPs: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and the pesticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin
, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, and toxaphene.
RESULTS: Eight organochlorine pesticides were measurable in all samples (medians; nanograms per gram lipid) for cases/controls: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE): 97.3/83.8; [beta]-hexachlorocyclohexane ([beta]-HCH): 13.6/12.3; hexachlorobenzene (HCB): 10.6/8.8; [alpha]-endosulfan: 7.0/6.7; oxychlordane: 4.5/4.1; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT): 4.6/4.0; dieldrin
: 4.1/3.1; cis-heptachloroepoxide (cis-HE): 2.5/2.2.
- Annex A (products for the Convention requires total phase-out except in the case of very specific derogations): aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin
, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls;
* The Stockholm Convention contains a list of nine chemical substances manufactured intentionally (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin
, endrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and PCBs) whose production and use are banned except in the case of general or specific derogations.