Here, the [[epsilon].sub.1] and [[epsilon].sub.2] are attributed to dielectric polarization
and optical absorption of the system, respectively.
Undoped ZrHf[O.sub.2] film exhibits ferroelectricity behavior on polarization-electric curve test while hysteresis characteristic disappears on the Al-doped ZrHf[O.sub.2] film, indicating typical dielectric polarization
According to the Debye equation, relaxation of dielectric polarization
occurs at a natural resonant frequency and when internal frequency has collapsed.
When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization
. Because of dielectric polarization
, positive charges are displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction .
The measurement beam focused onto the sample induces a nonlinear dielectric polarization
([P.sup.(3)]), which provides backscattering from it.
The electric charges in dielectrics will respond to an applied electric field through the change of dielectric polarization
. Dielectric materials are nearly insulators in which the electrical conductivity is very low and the energy band gap is large.
Kirkwood, "The dielectric polarization
of polar liquids," The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.
The dependence of contributions of different components of dielectric polarization
, such as electric, ionic, and orientational polarization on the frequency of the applied electric field, is responsible for the change in the value of the dielectric constant.
For example, the dielectric polarization
and electric fields are odd under parity transformations and even under time-reversal transformations.
The MCPs use electrode strips to create dielectric polarization
, allowing for the movement of ions toward or away from a positive or negative charge.
They then switch focus to nonequilibrium electrokinetic phenomena in chapters discussing field-induced dielectric polarization
, field-induced double layer polarization, dielectrophoresis, and electrorotation.