differential association


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differential association

a theory of CRIME developed by Edwin H. Sutherland, in which criminal behaviour is viewed as learned behaviour resulting from contact with situations in which criminality is defined favourably He argued that this theory could also account for the type of crime engaged in. Thus, in the appropriate contexts, favourable attitudes to tax evasion or ‘fiddles’ at work may be learned by people who are otherwise eminently law-abiding and respectable.

Working in the tradition of the CHICAGO SCHOOL, Sutherland was especially interested in street gangs and DELINQUENT SUBCULTURE. However, he intended his theory as a general theory of criminal behaviour, its significance lying in the argument that individuals learn to be criminal in precisely the same way that they learn to be law-abiding. He thus rejects those accounts of crime which explain it in terms of individual psychopathology However, there is no acceptance in sociology that ‘differential association’ explains all aspects or all forms of crime. See also CRIMINOLOGY.

References in periodicals archive ?
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory suggests that the commission of a crime is the result of learned behaviour ie through association.
Differential association of generalized and abdominal obesity with diabetic retinopathy in asian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Then, informed by differential association theory, the authors assess the social influences relevant to the detainees' radicalization.
To this end, this research examines a model of sports participation, gang involvement, and peer and individual delinquency that is based on differential association and social control theories (see Figure 1).
The authors cover the diversity of deviance, researching deviance, anomie/strain theory, social disorganization theory, differential association and social learning theory, social control theories, labeling theory, Marxist/conflict theories, critical theories, the social control of deviance, deviant careers and career deviance, and global perspectives on deviance and social control.
Part two looks at social science theories: Durkheim, Merton, differential association, control theory, feminist theory, and the constructionist stance.
Although the originator of the concept of White-Collar crime is said to have failed to present an all encompassing definition of the term but he attempted to propose the theory of differential association to explain the phenomena of White-Collar crime.
Differential association of oral and transdermal oestrogen-replacement therapy with venous thromboembolism risk.
Differential Association Theory: In 1939 Edwin Sutherland introduced differential association theory.
These constructs, which include differential reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, differential association, and imitation, provide the theoretical underpinning from which to develop and support the paper's hypotheses.
Possibilities from traditional sociological theory usually include anomie/strain theory, differential association, labeling theory, rational choice, neutralization/drift, and social control.
Routine activities theory, differential association, anomie theory, control theory and techniques of neutralization are used to help understand white-collar offenders and to provide ideas for probation and parole agents and other counselors who may be called upon to effect positive change in them.

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