differential association


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differential association

a theory of CRIME developed by Edwin H. Sutherland, in which criminal behaviour is viewed as learned behaviour resulting from contact with situations in which criminality is defined favourably He argued that this theory could also account for the type of crime engaged in. Thus, in the appropriate contexts, favourable attitudes to tax evasion or ‘fiddles’ at work may be learned by people who are otherwise eminently law-abiding and respectable.

Working in the tradition of the CHICAGO SCHOOL, Sutherland was especially interested in street gangs and DELINQUENT SUBCULTURE. However, he intended his theory as a general theory of criminal behaviour, its significance lying in the argument that individuals learn to be criminal in precisely the same way that they learn to be law-abiding. He thus rejects those accounts of crime which explain it in terms of individual psychopathology However, there is no acceptance in sociology that ‘differential association’ explains all aspects or all forms of crime. See also CRIMINOLOGY.

References in periodicals archive ?
(Haslam, 2006; Haslam, Loughnan, Kashima, & Bain, 2008, for a review), it has been confirmed that children, like adults, dehumanised through differential association of animal attributes with out-group members in comparison to that associat ion with i n-group member s.
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory suggests that the commission of a crime is the result of learned behaviour ie through association.
Differential association of generalized and abdominal obesity with diabetic retinopathy in asian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Violent radicalization leading to involvement in jihadi terrorism appears to be highly contingent upon two key factors of what has been termed "differential association," namely contact with radicalizing agents and pre-existing social ties with other radicalized individuals.
Participation in sport is thought to diminish affiliations with delinquent peers (differential association theory; see Sutherland, Cressey, & Luckenbill, 1992), which in turn lessens the effectiveness of their negative socialization inputs and behavioral modeling (McCarthy, 1996).
The authors cover the diversity of deviance, researching deviance, anomie/strain theory, social disorganization theory, differential association and social learning theory, social control theories, labeling theory, Marxist/conflict theories, critical theories, the social control of deviance, deviant careers and career deviance, and global perspectives on deviance and social control.
Part two looks at social science theories: Durkheim, Merton, differential association, control theory, feminist theory, and the constructionist stance.
Although the originator of the concept of White-Collar crime is said to have failed to present an all encompassing definition of the term but he attempted to propose the theory of differential association to explain the phenomena of White-Collar crime.
Differential association of oral and transdermal oestrogen-replacement therapy with venous thromboembolism risk.
Differential Association Theory: In 1939 Edwin Sutherland introduced differential association theory.
This differential association is interesting and may be due to the relative inactivity of majors compared to minors.
The framework for this model focused on the developmental and learning history associated with abuse and neglect and family structure on the following variables: A (reinforcement and punishment)--interacts with B--(the discriminative stimuli-differential reinforcement link)--and with C (differential association, as a controlling condition) to create X (juvenile delinquency).

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