These systems include: Driving Stability Control (DSC), Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), Dynamic Traction Control (DTC), Automatic Differential Brake
(ADB-X), Cornering Brake Control (CBC), Dynamic Brake Control (DBC), Start-Off Assistant, Performance Control, and Hill Descent Control (HDC).
Liu  and Dahlberg  studies on the steering brake and differential brake
stability respectively by the means of using the time course curve of the vehicle parameters, such as yaw rate and center of gravity, to qualitatively analyze the braking stability.
The CPLD interface board has 15 single-ended PWM input signals, 16 differential PWM output signals, 4 differential Brake
output signals and a differential Inverter Enable output signal.
Driver safety aids include BMW's Dynamic Safety Control (DSC+) which includes ABS braking with automatic differential brake
and brake force distribution, automatic stability control, cornering and dynamic brake control, hill start assist plus engine drag torque control.
And BMW does not disappoint in terms of safety and security features with Anti-lock Braking System, Automatic Differential Brake
, Automatic Stability Control and Traction and Cornering Brake Control to name but a few.
It's an acronym-lover's dream package, including ABS, Cornering Brake Control (CBC), ASC+T traction control, third-generation Dynamic Stability Control (DSC III) with Automatic Differential Brake
(ADB-X), and Intelligent Hill Descent Control (HDC).
Mechanical electronic elements in the car include electronic power steering, four electronically-controlled drive modes, brake energy regeneration, adaptive suspension, automatic differential brakes
, dynamic traction control, dynamic stability control, cornering brake control, auto-hold electric park brake, hill-start/descent assist and something called 'driver attentiveness alert'.