The Multi-rate Differential Phase
Shift Keying (DPSK) Optical Communication modem developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory provides the FSOC technology base for NASA's next-generation near-Earth satellite communications capability and forms the basis for the United States' first FSOC satellite communications standard, which is under development with the International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards body today.
Also, antenna-polarization errors cause cross coupling that biases [Z.sub.DR] as a function of copolar differential phase
[[phi].sub.DP] when using SHV mode (Wang and Chandrasekar 2006; Hubbert et al.
Compared with the long wavelength (e.g., S- and C-band) radars, short wavelength (e.g., X-band) radars have some advantages, including smaller-sized antenna and higher sensitivity of the differential phase
shift to rain rate.
The top layer schematic of the system, as shown in Figure 2, consists of five modules: differential phase
detector (DPD), digital filter (DF), biphasic clock source (B_CLO), controller (S_CON), and frequency divider (DVF).
This research was performed in a 4-channel 40 Gbps WDM transmission system with binary differential phase
shift keying (BDPSK) modulation.
shift keying does not have determined symbols in constellation diagram as it is in common PSK, but it has a table of phase shifts (in degrees or radians) where is each phase shift represented with a symbol.
Wu, "Real-time protein biosensor array based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase
imaging," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol.
Figure 10(a) shows the basic operation of UNI gates that depends on the differential phase
shift between two orthogonal polarized components of the signal [26-37].
BLUE-PA and BLUE-PA-N take the phase of correlation metrics directly and a coarse estimation is needed to enlarge the estimation range, while BLUE-DPA and BLUE-DPA-N utilize differential phase
of correlation metrics to avoid coarse estimation steps.
Schiffman differential phase
shifter is a common used fixed phase shifter form in Butler matrix.
On the other hand differential phase
shift keying (DPSK) is a non-coherent kind of phase shift keying technique.