peritonitis

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Related to diffuse peritonitis: peritoneum, Acute peritonitis

peritonitis

(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.

Peritonitis

 

inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.

REFERENCE

Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.

R. B. KAVTELADZE

peritonitis

[‚per·ə·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the peritoneum.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum
References in periodicals archive ?
1992, in 377 patients with diffuse peritonitis performed planned relaparotomy in 152 (40.
Vacuum-assisted fascial closure in the management of diffuse peritonitis," Zentralbl Chir, Vol.
Although we had no 30-day postoperative deaths, any significant reduction in mortality cannot be inferred because patients with diffuse peritonitis or septic shock were excluded from the laparoscopic approach and also because of the difference in the number of patients between studies.
Continuous postoperative peritoneal lavage in diffuse peritonitis using balanced saline antibiotic solution.
Surgical management of diffuse peritonitis complicating obstetric/ gynecologic infection.
Patients with perforated jejunal diverticulum often have localized or diffuse peritonitis.
The perforated tumor communicated with the jejunum, and then the GI contents effused via the hole of the tumor causing acute diffuse peritonitis.
However, GISTs originating from the jejunum rarely cause perforation, and also rarely cause acute diffuse peritonitis.

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