where [V.sub.n] is the potential between the conductive band up to the Fermi potential, and [V.sub.bi] is the diffusion potential
The convection diffusion potential
is formed in response to movement of ions via diffusion and convection.
[E.sub.d] is the diffusion potential (in V) on the protoplasmic side of the membrane, assuming the potential of the exoplasmic side is O V
The K-state, where the membrane potential (more positive than -0.18 V) is determined predominantly by the diffusion of [K.sup.+]; the pump state, where the electrogenic [H.sup.+]-pumping ATPase contributes to the resting potential of approximately between -0.18 and -0.30 V; and a third stable state which occurs at high pH where the permeability to [H.sup.+] or O[H.sup.-] becomes so large that the diffusion potential is determined by the permeability coefficients for [H.sup.+] or O[H.sup.-] ([P.sub.H] or [P.sub.OH]; Beilby & Bisson, 1992; Bisson & Walker, 1980, 1981, 1982).
A reset pulse, applied to [G.sub.R], resets the floating diffusion potential to [V.sub.d].
For a transferred charge packet of 74209 electrons, the theoretical expected change in floating diffusion potential is about 0.73 V, giving an output sensitivity of 9.9 [mu]V/e, compared to the prediction of the simulation of [delta]V= 0.69 V, corresponding to a sensitivity of 9.3 [mu]V/e.
Such "diffusion potentials
" are expected to be present in all processes that involve diffusion of charged species due to differences in inherent ion mobility and the perm-selective nature of the diffusion barrier.
If the electric potential of the measured solution is the same or very similar to the electric potential of reference solution, then the diffusion potentials
of solutions are very similar and in the temperature of 25[degrees]C, following equation is applicable:
arise due to differing concentrations of water solutions separated by a membrane.