When using a digital phase shifter
to perform beamforming, the phase value of cell ([x.sub.m], [z.sub.n]) relative to cell (0, 0) is expressed as
The core chip usually consists of a digital phase shifter
and an attenuator, along with low noise and medium power amplifiers that interface directly with the receive and transmit path MMICs.
We previously proposed a 4-bit digital phase shifter
 and active integrated phased array antenna with beam steering capability  for effective use of microwave energy, since propagation loss is large compared to other WPT configurations.
In order to simplify the feed network, continuous adjustment for the excitation amplitude and phase of array elements can be adjusted as discrete adjustment, such as array thinning technology adopted for pattern synthesis by controlling the on/off status of elements [3-13], phase array technology adopting N-bit digital phase shifter
[14-17], and pattern synthesis combining array thinning and unequally spaced array [9,18] etc.
Besides, digital attenuator and digital phase shifter
are adopted during the proposed synthesis.
This dilemma was solved by using a limited number of digital phase shifter
and attenuator bits.
For the X-band, five-bit digital phase shifter
, the 180 [degrees], 90 [degrees] and 45 [degrees] elements are classical switched phase-shifting cells; the 22.5 [degrees] and 11.25 [degrees] shifters are based on the loaded-line principle using lumped elements.
A 6-bit digital phase shifter
presented by Andricos, Bahl and Griffin  at C band utilizes reflection type phase shifters for larger phase bits and loaded line phase shifters for smaller phase bits.
Irvine, CA, November 15, 2015 --(PR.com)-- Pasternack, a leading provider of RF, microwave and millimeter wave products, introduces a new series of 8-bit digital phase shifters
which are programmable over a full 360[degrees] range and can produce a discrete set of phase states of up to 255 total steps with 1.4[degrees] increments with a high level of accuracy and minimal phase shift error.
This is an important distinction from digital phase shifters
that commonly require three to six control lines routed to each phase shifter.
Covering a frequency range of 1.8 to 2.2 GHz, the PE46120 integrates a 90-degree hybrid splitter, 5-bit digital phase shifters
and a 4-bit digital step attenuator along with a low-voltage, CMOS serial digital interface.
On the one hand, digital phase shifters
based on switching devices such as PIN diodes  or MEMS  have been developed.