The experimental runs were performed using a simulating oil, having a 60% (w/w) of pure triolein; the remaining 40% of the mixture included fatty acid or mono- and diglycerides
. Ethanol (99.8% grade) from Fluka was used as the secondary substrate; hexane (95% grade) from Fluka was the solvent, as suggested in the literature .
Figure 4 demonstrated the concentration profiles for diglyceride
(JDG) and methyl ester (JME) calculated from the first- order model at 60[degrees]C using the k values given in Table 2 which was then compared against the experimental values.
During the esterification reaction mono- (MG) and diglycerides
(DG) were formed.
Composition of biodiesel Methyl esters Monoglycerides Biodiesels (w/w%) (w/w%) Sunflower biodiesel 96.41 0.37 Soybean biodiesel 96.68 0.45 Composition of biodiesel Biodiesels Diglycerides
(w/w%) Triglycerides (w/w%) Sunflower biodiesel 0.42 0.44 Soybean biodiesel 1.13 ND Composition of biodiesel Kinematic viscosity Biodiesels at 40[degrees]C ([mm.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) Sunflower biodiesel 3.93 Soybean biodiesel 4.1 TABLE 3 Fatty acid profiles of biodiesel sources.
The JME fuel property test results such as density at 15[degrees]C, calorific value, flash point, cetane value, specific gravity at 15[degrees] C, viscosity at 40[degrees]C, water content, ash content, acid value, monoglyceride, diglyceride
, triglyceride, free glycerine, total ester content, and total glycerine contents are summarized in Table 7.
Property Method Unit Specific gravity ASTM D4052 kg [m.sup.-3] at 20[degrees]C (ASTM, 2002) Flash Point ASTM D93 [degrees]C (ASTM, 2001) Acid Number ASTM D664 mg KOH [g.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2001) Free Glycerin ASTM D6584 % m [m.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2003) Total Glycerin ASTM D6584 % m [m.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2003) Monoglyceride ASTM D6584 % m [m.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2003) Diglyceride
ASTM D6584 % m [m.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2003) Triglyceride ASTM D6584 % m [m.sup.-1] (ASTM, 2003) Methanol EN 14110 % m [m.sup.-1] (CEN, 2003) Ester content EN 14110 % m [m.sup.-1] (CEN, 2003) Water content EN 12937 mg [kg.sup.-1] (CEN, 2000) Property Limit Result Specific gravity 850-900 880.6 at 20[degrees]C Flash Point Min.
Also, the reason for relative enhancement in volume of bread samples containing emulsifiers' monoglyceride and diglyceride
is that emulsifiers contain hydrophilic and lipophilic particles that serve to enhance the hydrophilic characteristic, which increases volume as a result of emulsifier consumption.
Digestive lipids such as triglycerides, diglycerides
, fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol , and other lipids based on synthetic origin offer improvement in bioavailability of the drug in contrast to the nondigestible lipids with which reduced bioavailability may occur due to impairment in absorption caused by retention of the fraction of administered drug in the formulation itself.
The rearrangement of the intermediate molecule forms a mole of methyl ester and diglyceride
. Another methoxide anion attacks the carbonyl carbon in the formed diglyceride
, forming another mole of methyl ester and monoglyceride.
(2) Mono-galactosyl diglyceride
. (3) Di-galactosyl diglyceride
where [C.sub.TG], [C.sub.DG], [C.sub.MG], [C.sub.E], [Cs.ub.A], and [C.sub.GL] are concentrations of triglyceride, diglyceride
, monoglyceride, methyl ester, methanol, and glycerol, respectively.
Quantitative analysis of sulfolipid (sulfoquinoxosyl diglyceride
) and galactolipids (Monogalactosyl and Digalactosyl diglycerides
) in plant tissues.