# digraph

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## digraph

[′dī‚graf]
(mathematics)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Digraph

a combination of two or more letters that indicate a single sound, for example, Polish sz and cz. In Russian known as ligatura, see LIGATURE.

## digraph

In some programming languages, a digraph is two common keyboard characters used together that represent one symbol. For example, (* and *) have represented the curly braces { and }. A trigraph uses three characters such as ??- for a tilde ~. Digraphs and trigraphs are methods for ensuring symbols can be entered into source code from an abbreviated keyboard that has fewer keys than a full-size unit.
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References in periodicals archive ?
in [2], Choi constructs a bijection between the set of Davis-Januszkiewicz equivalence classes of small covers over an n-cube and the set of acyclic digraphs with n-labeled nodes.
Example 7 Consider the SVN digraph [mathematical expression not reproducible] in Figure 1 with vertex set [mathematical expression not reproducible] and arc set [mathematical expression not reproducible] with one loop at each vertex as follows:
(ii) The digraph G = (V, E) is said to be transitive if whenever (x, y) [member of] E and (y, z) [member of] E, (x, z) [member of] E.
Jia, "Interval bipartite consensus of networked agents associated with signed digraphs," Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Automatic Control, vol.
where each [G.sub.i] is a digraph. We need this fact and the following lemmas.
In Section 4, the existence of a common N-tupled fixed point of operators satisfying ([phi], [psi])-contractive conditions in metric spaces endowed with a digraph is considered.
By induction, there exists digraph isomorphism [[phi].sub.i] : T([a.sub.i]) [right arrow] T([b.sub.i]).
The adjancency matrixA(D) of a digraph D is the p x p matrix [[a.sub.ij]] with [a.sub.ij] = 1 if [v.sub.i][v.sub.j] is an arc of D, and 0 otherwise (Fig.
Based on the two sets, we can construct strong/weak dominant digraph. The procedure by which we sequence the alternatives by using the two digraphs seems like that stated in Step 2 of the ELECTRE-II method.
If the digraph G has a spanning tree, then its Laplacian matrix L has a simple zero eigenvalue and all other eigenvalues have positive real parts.

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