# digraph

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[′dī‚graf]
(mathematics)

## Digraph

a combination of two or more letters that indicate a single sound, for example, Polish sz and cz. In Russian known as ligatura, see LIGATURE.

## digraph

In some programming languages, a digraph is two common keyboard characters used together that represent one symbol. For example, (* and *) have represented the curly braces { and }. A trigraph uses three characters such as ??- for a tilde ~. Digraphs and trigraphs are methods for ensuring symbols can be entered into source code from an abbreviated keyboard that has fewer keys than a full-size unit.
References in periodicals archive ?
in , Choi constructs a bijection between the set of Davis-Januszkiewicz equivalence classes of small covers over an n-cube and the set of acyclic digraphs with n-labeled nodes.
Example 7 Consider the SVN digraph [mathematical expression not reproducible] in Figure 1 with vertex set [mathematical expression not reproducible] and arc set [mathematical expression not reproducible] with one loop at each vertex as follows:
In this SP we can easily identify an erasure of overlap, indicating the competition between the grapheme 'c' and the grapheme 's' for the orthographic representation of the digraph 'ss'.
(ii) The digraph G = (V, E) is said to be transitive if whenever (x, y) [member of] E and (y, z) [member of] E, (x, z) [member of] E.
Jia, "Interval bipartite consensus of networked agents associated with signed digraphs," Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Automatic Control, vol.
where each [G.sub.i] is a digraph. We need this fact and the following lemmas.
In Section 4, the existence of a common N-tupled fixed point of operators satisfying ([phi], [psi])-contractive conditions in metric spaces endowed with a digraph is considered.
By induction, there exists digraph isomorphism [[phi].sub.i] : T([a.sub.i]) [right arrow] T([b.sub.i]).
The adjancency matrixA(D) of a digraph D is the p x p matrix [[a.sub.ij]] with [a.sub.ij] = 1 if [v.sub.i][v.sub.j] is an arc of D, and 0 otherwise (Fig.
Based on the two sets, we can construct strong/weak dominant digraph. The procedure by which we sequence the alternatives by using the two digraphs seems like that stated in Step 2 of the ELECTRE-II method.
If the digraph G has a spanning tree, then its Laplacian matrix L has a simple zero eigenvalue and all other eigenvalues have positive real parts.

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