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Three microliter drops of distilled water ([[gamma].sup.p] = 50.2 mJ/[m.sup.2], [[gamma].sup.d] = 22.6 mJ/[m.sup.2]) and diiodomethane ([[gamma].sup.p] = 1.8 mJ/[m.sup.2], [[gamma].sup.d] = 49.0 mJ/[m.sup.2]) [28] were used on the sample surface, and images were taken within I s after the drop.
A Kruss DSA30S contact angle machine was used to measure the static apparent contact angle (CA) with distilled water (WCA) and diiodomethane (C[H.sub.2][I.sub.2]CA).
Distilled water and diiodomethane (Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Company, United States) were then used as the probe liquids to observe the contact angle for each case of dispersed powder.
Within a very small set of samples, slight correlations were found to exist between diiodomethane and several of the household chemicals.
Moreover, double distilled water and diiodomethane attributed to polar and disperse parts of the sample were used to calculate surface tensions using Owens-Wendt equation [20].
Distilled water and diiodomethane (purity 99%, Alfa Aesar) were used for the measurement of contact angles.
All measurement were the made with various volumes of liquid drop, water and glycerol from 0.5 to 5 [micro]l with step of 0.5 [micro]l and diiodomethane from 0.6 to 1.5 [micro]l (step of 0.1 [micro]l) as this is the highest volume of diiodomethane before gravitation force is higher than surface tension which causes release of the drop from needle before contact with printing plate surface.
Surface free energy ([[gamma]]) and their dispersive ([gamma]]) and polar ([[gamma]]) components and viscosity of liquids Surface free energy [gamma] ([mNm.sup.-1]) Liquid [[gamma]] [gamma]] Diiodomethane (Strom) 50.8 50.8 Glycerol (van Oss) 64.0 34.0 Water (Strom) 72.8 21.8 Surface free energy [gamma] ([mNm.sup.-1]) Viscosity Liquid [gamma]] (mPas) Diiodomethane (Strom) 0.0 2.78 Glycerol (van Oss) 30.0 1412 Water (Strom) 51.0 1.002
Digital images (JPG) of 1.0[micro]1 droplets for a probe liquid triad (ultrapure water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol) resting on the substrates of interest are produced.
An X-ray opaque penetrant (Diiodomethane) is used to fill the cracks and make the contrast higher (only cracks and defects that are connected in some way to the surface can be seen).
Low-rate dynamic contact angles and contact ratios of different systems Solid Liquid Contact Contact angle [theta] ratio A * (deg) PS Water 95.6 0.52 Glycerol 84.5 0.62 Formamide 74.4 [3] 0.65 Ethylene glycol 59.5 [3] 0.84 PMMA Water 83.7 0.60 Glycerol 72.6 0.71 Diiodomethane 41.9 [2] 0.81 FC-725-coated Water 119.2 [1] 0.38 silicon wafer Formamide 106.4 [1] 0.47 2,2-thiodiethanol 100.6 [1] 0.51 Poly(methyl 3-pyridylcarbinol 48.5 [4] 0.91 methacrylate/ethyl methacrylate, 30/70): P(MMA/EMA, 30/70) Poly(styrene-(hexyl/10- Diethylene glycol 50.9 [5] 0.83 carboxydecyl90:10) Glycerol 76.4 [5] 0.61 maleimide): Formamide 69.9 [5] 0.65 P[S-(H/CM)] [1] Kwok et al., 1998a [2] Kwok et al., 1998b [3] Kwok et al., 1998c [4] Kwok et al., 1999a [5] Kwok et al., 1999b