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Related to diphtheria toxoid: diphtheria antitoxin, tetanus toxoid


protein toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, or antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, remains. Because toxoids can be given in large quantities with no risk of tissue damage, they have superseded the highly poisonous toxins as immunizing agents against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also anatoxin), a harmless derivative of a toxin that retains its antigenic and immunogenic properties. It is obtained by rendering the toxin harmless with formalin at 37–40°C. A toxoid suitable for immunizing human beings was first obtained in 1923 by the French immunologist G. Ramon. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are used as prophylactic measures against these infections. Staphylococcal, botulin, and dysentery toxoids, toxoids produced by the causative agents of gas gangrene and made from the poisons of some poisonous snakes, and other toxoids have been produced and are used for specific prophylaxis and treatment. Toxoids are also used for immunizing horses in order to obtain medicinal antitoxic serums (antitetanus and antidiphtheria).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Detoxified toxin, but with antigenic properties intact; toxoids of tetanus and diphtheria are used for immunization.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
1988), whereas antibodies against diphtheria toxoids were measured using a standard Vero cell--based neutralization assay employing 2-fold dilutions of serum samples (Miyamura et al.
Tolerability and antibody response in adolescents and adults revaccinated with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed (Tdap) 4-5 years after a previous dose.
The technique uses a part of the Haemophilus bacterium that would normally stimulate only a weak immune response (a "hapten') and links it to a potent immune system stimulant, or "carrier' --in this case a protein component of diphtheria toxoid. The resulting antibody response is rich in Haemophilus-specific "memory cells' that enable infants to mount an amplified attack against the bacteria.
Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants.
20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal receipt of influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines is not associated with infant hospitalization or death in the first six months of life, according to a study published online Feb.
A new tool is now available to assist in controlling pertussis: the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap).
Adacel (Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed) is indicated as a booster for adolescents and adults aged 11-64 years, while Boostrix is indicated for adolescents aged 10-18 years.
Like the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine that it replaces, the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Tdap) is routinely recommended at intervals of 10 years for all adults.
If first immunized in military service, we were given Td, a dual vaccine that omits the pertussis toxoid and contains a smaller amount of diphtheria toxoid, which can cause adverse reactions in adults.
Vaccination with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women to protect infants who are too young for vaccination from severe pertussis-related outcomes (1-3).

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