These results may suggest that most aneuploid Yesso scallops died before the D-larvae stage, and aneuploid individuals closest to euploidy, especially diploidy
, survived longer.
For example, recent data have shown that a small percentage of triploid oysters progressively revert toward diploidy
with age (Calvo et al., 2001; Zhou, 2002).
"Many people consider diploidy
to be the pinnacle of evolution," Otto says.
Some authors found increasing age to be related to increased stage at presentation, while others found in elderly women more favourable prognostic factors such as high diploidy
values and oestrogen receptor positivity.
Previous studies have suggested that embryos with 3PN, which develop from ICSI zygotes, are endowed with mechanisms to correct triploidy to diploidy
. 62.5% of ICSI 3PN embryos were found to progress back to the blastocyst stage, whereas 54.5% were heteroparental diploid blastocysts (5).
With NGS and highly sensitive PCR technologies, mutations should be identifiable in specimens with as little as 10% tumor (mutant allele frequency of 5% assuming heterozygosity and diploidy
Evidence of diploidy
in the wild Amerindian yam, a putative progenitor of the endangered species Dioscorea trifida (Dioscoreaceae).
In vitro androgenesis has been the mainstream approach in the production of pure lines via haploids which is later doubled to restore the diploidy
Mac rocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy
and alteration of chromatin condensation.
Because only one chromosome is examined in this assay, diploidy
cannot be distinguished from disomy of chromosome 1.
Chromosome counts were made as additional data to evaluate diploidy
or polyploidy using tissues of juveniles (~300 [micro]m in length) brooded within the parental gills, and following the protocol described by Jara-Seguel et al.
In both groups, the mean frequencies of chromosome 18 disomy were within the normal range: the means of frequency of diploidy
and sex chromosome disomy were higher than reference values, but only diploidy
reached statistical significance (P = 0.01) in group I.