Diplopoda

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Diplopoda

[də′plä·pə·də]
(invertebrate zoology)
The millipeds, a class of terrestrial tracheate, oviparous arthropods; each body segment except the first few bears two pairs of walking legs.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Diplopoda

 

a class of subphylum Tracheata, phylum Ar-thropoda. (According to an earlier system, Diplopoda was considered a subclass of class Myriopoda.)

The bodies of Diplopoda consist of a head and a more or less uniformly segmented trunk, most of whose segments bear two pairs of legs (whence the name), since each segment of the trunk is formed by the merging of two embryonic segments. Along the sides of the trunk segments in the majority of Diplopoda there are openings of defensive toxic glands, which secrete a pungent fluid that sometimes contains hydrocyanic acid. On the head there is a single pair of short unbranched antennae and two pairs of weak jaws. There are simple eyes or groups of simple eyes along the sides of the head. There are approximately 7,500 species, of which about 200 are found in the USSR. Diplopoda are terrestrial, but they require high humidity in the air and therefore inhabit the forest floor, the soil, rotten wood, fissures in rocks, and other shelters where the relative atmospheric humidity is approximately 100 percent. The respiratory organs are tracheas. The excretory organs include a pair of Malpighian tubules and the walls of the intestinal tract. Diplopoda feed on decaying plant remains; more rarely, they eat the succulent tissues of living plants. Diplopoda are beneficial, since they promote the mineralization and humification of the dead parts of plants and the formation of soils. Some Diplopoda (for example, the millipedes) sometimes cause damage in hothouses, vegetable gardens, and berry fields, where they may easily be destroyed by insecticides.

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Edited by L. A.Zenkevich. Moscow, 1969.
Lokshina, I. E. Opredelite V dvuparnonogikh mnogonozhek Diplopoda ravninnoi chasti Evropeiskoi territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1969.

M. S. GILIAROV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Assessment of the toxic potencial of sewage sludge in the midgut of the Diplopod Rhinocricus pagbergi.
Diplopods usually do not occur in high densities, but population explosions have been reported, often caused by environmental disturbances (Cloudsley-Thompson, 1950; Niijima and Shinohara, 1988; Boccardo et al., 1997, 2002; Kania and Tracz, 2005; Fontanetti et al., 2010a, b).
The structure and role of the midgut of diplopods have been described for few species (Bowen, 1968; Nunez and Crawford, 1977; Hubert, 1979b, 1988; Fontanetti and Camargo-Mathias, 1997; Fontanetti et al., 2001; Fantazzini et al., 2002; Camargo-Mathias et al., 2004; Sosinka et al., 2014).
For all other species of diplopods examined, a simple prismatic epithelium has been reported.
The epithelium consists of absorptive cells (principal cell or digestive cell), generative cells (regenerative cell) and secretory cells, similar to the ones described for other species of diplopods, such as Oxidus gracilis (Neumann, 1985 apud Hopkin and Read, 1992), Glomeris marginata (Martin and Kirkham, 1989), Plusiopurus setiger (Fontanetti and Camargo-Mathias, 1997), Rhinocricus padbergi (Fantazzini et al., 2002) and Polynexus lagurus, Archispirostreptus gigas and Julus scandinavius (Sosinka et al., 2014).
The observation of absorptive cells in diplopods, including U.
In diplopods, the mode of secretion can be apocrine, as observed in the present study and described by Fontanetti et al.
The presence of calcium in the midgut of diplopods is well known, since these animals dwell in the soil.
Hopkin and Read (1992) also observed several granules of calcium phosphate arranged concentrically in intestinal cells of diplopods. According to Hubert (1979b), since the midgut is a site of mineral storage, it plays an important role in the ionic regulation of the organism, and consequently, the cyclic discharge of granules may be a form of excretion.
Diplopods as Bioindicators of Soils: Analysis of Midgut of Individuals Maintained in Substract Containing Sewage Sludge.
Studies of parajulid diplopods. The micro-anatomy of the alimentary canal of Parajulus impressus Say.
Acute and subchronic exposure of diplopods to substrate containing sewage mud: Tissular responses of the midgut.