The switchable electric dipole moment
of ferroelectric materials could for example be used as a gate for the underlying 2D electron system in an artificial topological insulator.
The ease with which a dipole moment
is induced in an atom or
Table 1: The dipole moments
[mu] (D), the polarizability [alpha] (au), the average polarizability [[alpha].sub.tot] (esu), the anisotropy of the polarizability Aa (esu), and the first hyperpolarizability [[beta].sub.tot] (esu) of Tetrabromophenol blue and Bromoxylenol blue.
The forces on particles are calculated by (1) while the dipole moment
have been modified using IDM every time step, and particle transportation can be easily solved for particle trajectories and final particle chains.
To characterise the polarity table 1 provides the dipole moments
of the studied functional groups.
In first approximation, the dipole moment
of a triatomic molecule may be solved by the technique of vector addition that describes the resulting dipole [micro]res of the sum of two dipole moments
[[mu].sub.1] and [[mu].sub.2] that make between them an angle [theta] given by Equation 2.
Suzuki, "The electric dipole moment
of the electron," Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.
The value of the phase difference between the induced dipole moment
m, and the field vector E controls the magnitude of the torque, reaching maximum when the phase difference is 9"", and zero when the phase is zero.
where [gamma] is the angle between the transition dipole moment
vector of the absorbing group and the chain axis of the molecule [11,12].
Here a Hertzian (small) dipole with dipole moment
p directed to positive X axis, at altitude xo above the infinite, flat and lossy ground, radiates time-harmonic electromagnetic (EM) waves at angular frequency [omega] = 2[pi]f Here the relative complex permittivity of the ground is [[epsilon]'.sub.r] = [epsilon]'/[[epsilon].sub.0] = [[epsilon].sub.r] + i[sigma]/[omega][[epsilon].sub.0], a being the ground conductivity, f the frequency of radiation and [[epsilon].sub.0] = 8,854 x [10.sup.-12] F/m is the absolute permittivity in vacuum or air.
The magnetism arises from the magnetic dipole moment
of unpaired electrons in the d- or f-orbitals.