The dielectric response at frequencies of >1 GHz range is usually attributed to the dipole polarization of water molecules and might be used to estimate the amount of water in the pore space.
Given that the clay particles in fresh water samples have thick hydrate envelopes of weakly bound water, the dipole polarization of water molecules is achieved more easily in the parallel to bedding plane simply due to the fact that the clay particles in all the samples are mostly oriented in horizontal direction.
Second, [Fe.sub.3][O.sub.4] NPs can introduce extra dissipation due to polarization processes which may involve space charge polarization, dipole polarization
, and interfacial polarization at microwave band.
Corresponding eigenanalysis of the dominant scatterer will provide orientation to model the dipole polarization
Furthermore, the quadrupole field pattern decays faster than that of the dipole polarization
. Investigating the plasmon spectra of both perfect and snipped trigonal prisms (DDA modelling results) shows three peaks; the strongest one is in the visible range and very sensitive to triangular snipping.