As is well known, the [sup.5][D.sub.0] [right arrow] [sup.7][F.sub.1] line originates from magnetic dipole transition whilst the [sup.5][D.sub.0] [right arrow] [sup.7][F.sub.2] line results from the electric dipole transition.
lack of inversion symmetry and the break of parity selection rules in ZMO and ZnMo[O.sub.4] make the [sup.5][D.sub.0] [right arrow] [sup.7][F.sub.2] electric dipole transition strongest among all these transitions.
There are several typical emission bands around 560-720 nm assigned to the [sup.5][D.sub.0] [right arrow] [sup.7][F.sub.J] (J = 0-4) transitions of [Eu.sup.3+] [59-63], of which the red emission band at 617 nm is the most intense one due to the electric dipole transition
[sup.5][D.sub.0] [right arrow] [sup.7][F.sub.2].
Electric dipole, quadrupole, and magnetic dipole transition
probabilities of ions isoelectronic to the first-row atoms, Li through F.
The dipole transition
moment due to the exocyclic N oriented in the direction of  in the crystal structure does not get excited.
The intense peak at 611 nm and a small peak at 628 nm correspond to the hypersensitive transition between the [sup.5][D.sub.0] and [sup.7][F.sub.2] levels of [Eu.sup.3+] ion in calcium bromofluoride host aroused due to forced electric dipole transition
Figures 1 and 2 display the square of dipole transition
matrix element between ith and fth states and differences between energy levels in the dipole transitions
as a function of dot radius at x = 0.3.
Their theory, which is based on a perturbation approach, leads to asymptotic forms of the core polarization potential [V.sub.p] and corrected dipole transition
moment [d.sub.eff] which are in agreement with the classical formulas.
According to selection rules, the same parity of the two states suggests magnetic dipole transition
The PL intensity enhancement associated to magnetic dipole transitions
([sup.5][D.sub.0]-[sup.7][F.sub.1]) of [Eu.sup.3+] ions are due to the confined optical magnetic field.
The book begins with the basic knowledge of the theories of nuclei and angular momentum, develops through the standard description of the fine and magnetic hyperfine interactions, and their impact on the energy structure of the lanthanide ions, and includes advanced description of f to f electric and magnetic dipole transitions
. This includes sensitized luminescence and its application in the detection and treatment of cancer in various tissues.
However, the dipole transitions
are allowed using the selection rules [DELTA]l = [+ or -]1, where l is the angular momentum quantum number.