UK studies show sensitivity levels for the detection of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy of 41%-67% for general practitioners, 48%-82% for optometrists, 65% for ophthalmologists, and 27%-67% for Diabetologist and hospital physicians using direct Ophthalmoscopy
.4 The reasons of high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in some studies could be the area of screening.
Sensitivity and specificity for a cupdisc ratio greater than 0.6 have been reported to be 64% and 96%, respectively, using direct ophthalmoscopy
As a diagnostic method, direct ophthalmoscopy
has its limitations, and the patient's recognition of distortions while viewing the Amsler grid (Figure 1) is very informative.
is a staple technique which has been used for many years by optometrists to examine the eye.
Before ocular ultrasound, a complete ophthalmic examination, which included slit-lamp examination (Kowa SL-15, Kowa Optimed Inc, Torrance, CA, USA), tonometry (Tonovet, Icare; Helsinki, Finland), and direct ophthalmoscopy
(Panoptic, Welch Allyn Iberia, Madrid, Spain) was performed in all birds.
All the 302 patients with diabetic retinopathy were subjected to dilated fundoscopy with 90+ D lens direct ophthalmoscopy
and were graded as follows
Objective: To investigate the manifestation characteristics of fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and its values in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy through comparing direct ophthalmoscopy
In all subjects, distant direct ophthalmoscopy
was performed to assess lens status in a dark room (normal, mild opacification, evident opacification, aphakia, pseudophakia with posterior capsule opacification (PCO), or pseudophakia without PCO).
has low sensitivity, and is unpopular with patients as it requires their pupils to be dilated.
Subjects having redness or squint were subjected to slit lamp examination, extraocular motility assessment, direct ophthalmoscopy
and fixation test using David's star.
without dilatation was performed in all cases; patients with decreased vision or with intra-ocular complications were dilated and had indirect ophthalmoscopy.
Only normal eyes were used in this study, as determined by ophthalmic examination (direct ophthalmoscopy
, pupillary light reflex, Schirmer Tear Test and fluorescein test).