One could even describe a 'mammal disclimax
' where plant succession is held in a different state as a result of the restructuring imposed by mammals.
Spruce seedlings were found invading the grassland slopes only rarely, which supports the conclusion of Lausi and Nimis (1991) that the Yukon grasslands are a long-lasting successional stage; under present climate conditions, it seems likely that they are a stable disclimax
on these south-facing slopes.
One of the better known explanations for the geographic distribution and ecology of parthenogenetic Cnemidophorus lizards was made by Wright and Lowe (1968), who described them as ecological "weeds." The authors based this conclusion on characteristics of the habitat of Cnemidophorus such as marginal, disclimax
, ecotonal, or perpetually disturbed - characteristics resembling those frequently associated with many opportunistic weedy plants (Baker 1965, Gray 1973).
Fernlands are a disclimax
vegetative community consisting of mainly tuanu'e (Dicranopteris linearis).
It was not interpreted by them as a natural community, but rather as either a disclimax
or seral plant assemblage.
The climax or disclimax
make-up of these plant associations are unknown as it is probable that every hectare on the refuge (except recent accretions from the river) has been affected by grazing or farming before the creation of the refuge in 1940.