discrimination

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discrimination

Electronics the selection of a signal having a particular frequency, amplitude, phase, etc., effected by the elimination of other signals by means of a discriminator

discrimination

the process by which a member, or members, of a socially defined group is, or are, treated differently (especially unfairly) because of his/her/their membership of that group. To be selected for less favourable treatment, a social group may be constructed by reference to such features as race, ethnicity, gender or religion. A distinction can be drawn between ‘categorical’ and 'S tatistical’ discrimination. Categorical discrimination is the unfavourable treatment of all persons socially assigned to a particular social category because the discriminator believes that this discrimination is required by his social group. Statistical discrimination refers to less favourable treatment of individuals based on the belief that there is a probability that their membership of a social group leads to them possessing less desirable characteristics.

In the UK, there are laws that deal with both sex and race discrimination: the Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and the Race Relations Act (1976). In both Acts, ‘direct’ discrimination is made illegal, in that a person may not be treated less favourably than another on the grounds of gender, colour, ethnicity or race. However, the Race Relations Act also attempts to tackle ‘indirect’ discrimination. This was defined as consisting of treatment which may be described as equal in a formal sense, as between different racial groups, but discriminatory in its effect upon a particular racial group. Indirect discrimination is the application of conditions or requirements which may mean that:' (1) the proportion of persons of a racial group who can comply with these is considerably smaller than the proportion of persons not of that racial group who can comply with them; (2) they are to the detriment of the persons who cannot comply with them; (3) they are not justifiable irrespective of the colour, race, nationality or ethnic or national origins of the person to whom they are applied’ (A Guide to the Race Relations Act 1976 Home Office, 1977). See also POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION, RACE RELATIONS, SEGREGATION, GHETTO, PREJUDICE, SEX DISCRIMINATION.

Discrimination

 

(1) The limitation or deprivation of the rights of certain categories of citizens on the basis of such criteria as race, national origin, and sex. In bourgeois countries racial discrimination is especially widespread—the limitation of rights and persecution of persons for reasons of their racial origin. It is openly practiced in the USA against Indians, Negroes, and Chinese. In the Republic of South Africa the discrimination against East Indians and other non-Boer and non-European populations practiced by the English and Afrikaaners (Boers) has reached large proportions. Widely practiced in capitalist states are such forms of discrimination as lower pay for the labor of women and young people and the limitation of rights on the basis of political and religious convictions.

(2) Discrimination in international relations is the establishment of lesser rights for the representatives, organizations, or citizens of one country than for those of another. The practice of discrimination usually brings about reciprocal measures in the form of retortion on the part of the government against whom it is directed. The USSR and other socialist countries vigorously oppose all forms of discrimination in international relations.

discrimination

[di‚skrim·ə′nā·shən]
(communications)
In frequency-modulated systems, the detection or demodulation of the imposed variations in the frequency of the carriers.
In a tuned circuit, the degree of rejection of unwanted signals.
Of any system or transducer, the difference between the losses at specified frequencies with the system or transducer terminated in specified impedances.
(computer science)

discrimination

discriminationclick for a larger image
The minimum angular distance at which two objects on a radar screen can be seen separately. In the figure, the discrimination capability of the radar is 2°.
References in periodicals archive ?
Typically, WCDTS first discriminates somatic cells against pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and ESCs), then iPSCs versus ESCs, and then cell sub-type (Figure 1(b)).
"In fact, all faith bodies will need to act with extreme caution now, more than ever, if they are tempted to discriminate against lesbian and gay people despite the exceptions given to faith bodies in certain very restricted situations to discriminate." Cliff James, secretary of the Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association, said, "The Church is rapidly having to learn that it is no longer a law unto itself and that injustice is no longer acceptable, even if it is committed in the name of religion."
1910) that would make it illegal for insurance companies to discriminate against consumers based on genetic information has 242 cosponsors but has yet to be considered in the House Education and the Workforce Committee's Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations.
* Perception -- Employers cannot harass or otherwise discriminate against someone because he or she is perceived to be a member of a particular racial, national origin or religious belief, regardless of whether that perception is correct.
By a 2-to-1 vote, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the state agency's decision, holding that it "facially discriminates on the basis of religion." The state "may not offer a benefit to all," the Court concluded, "but exclude some on the basis of religion." If the Supreme Court, as many expect, agrees with this reasoning, it would seem to follow that excluding religious schools from voucher programs is also unconstitutional.
Pena, the Supreme Court stated unequivocally that equal protection requires courts to find a compelling state interest for any state or local program that discriminates on the ground of race.
Even primatologists who have long studied monkeys prove unable to discriminate between previously seen and new monkey faces, according to an unpublished study by Odile Petit of the Primate Ethology and Behavioral Ecology Center in Strasbourg, France.
7, which would allow federal funds to go to religious organizations that require their employees to adhere to particular religious practices, is a broad assault on civil rights employment protections that date back to the 1940s, when it was decided that the federal government would not provide federal funds to persons who discriminate against others.
[2] This federal legislation requires that all employers of more than 15 employees must refrain from policies and procedures that either expressly or effectively discriminate against specified categories of individuals except under limited circumstances.
If the measures ever become law, they would punish USDA managers who discriminate against minority employees in job promotions or against farmers seeking loans and disaster aid.
Manufacturers can pay for such promotional expenses known as slotting fees, but are not supposed to discriminate among retailers unless they are trying to match prices by the competition.
Ms Coker said: "Procedures for appointing special advisers discriminate unlawfully against women and black people."