of scale is illustrated by comparing a grid system to an expressway system when applying a basic smart-city feature, such as one that relays real-time information online, allowing travellers to divert their routes when the downstream segment of the road is congested.
Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to organise and reduce the cluster economy and diseconomy
variables into factors (or latent variables).
of scale in the innovation process creates problems for the large pharmaceutical companies to fill the holes in their portfolio of drugs when the drugs run out of proprietary.
To achieve the reflective effects the architects wanted, columns were spaced 3m apart (closer than strict structural efficiency requires), but results justify the small diseconomy
. The walls change constantly in reflectivity and colour with your position and that of the sun, varying from glowingly opaque to almost transparent.
Analyzing these impacts requires recognizing the dependence of [[epsilon].sub.TC,Y] on marginal rather than average factor cost, so that monopsony power is embodied in [[epsilon].sub.TC,Y] as a cost diseconomy
. Higher output levels require greater throughput, which implies higher [p.sub.c] (with an upward-sloping input supply function).
There is a size where the complexity of making it work is actually a diseconomy
rather than an economy.'
The second regression model finds that for every 1% increase in total regional population above the mean for Ontario, total environmental expenditures increase by 1.1%, pointing to the presence of a mild diseconomy
Robert Fogel's Without Consent or Contract attributed the demise of American slavery not to its diseconomy
but to a religiously-inspired vision that made slavery morally insupportable.
Evidence substantiated a diseconomy
of scale function, as costs increased steadily with agency size.
When one industry creates costs that must be shared by all others, the useful science of economics calls it an "external diseconomy
." Multimillion-dollar fishing industries in both the Gulf and the Chesapeake are at risk.
When there is insufficient income or demand to satisfy a proper return to the land and return on and recapture of the improvements, a diseconomy
is present, and external obsolescence exists.
Collaborative research may have different effects upon different parties: what one party achieves as a scale economy, anther may suffer as a scale diseconomy