DSD

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DSD

(Direct Stream Digital) The sampling technique used in Sony's high-resolution SACD music format. Although SACD discs never took off and new ones are few and far between, the DSD format is used to encode music for high-quality downloads. Increasingly, Blu-ray players and music servers can decode the format. Digital DSD files use DFF and DSF extensions, the latter holding meta-data.

From 44 Thousand to Millions of Samples
For standard CDs, music is digitized 44.1 thousand times per second, producing 16-bit PCM samples. In contrast, DSD uses pulse density modulation (PDM) to encode 2,822,400 1-bit samples per second (64 times the CD sampling rate). Each DSD sample is a 1 or 0 (either up or down from the previous sample). Compared to CDs, DSD boosts frequency response from 20 kHz to 100 kHz and dynamic range from 96 to 120 db. See PCM, PDM and CD.

Even Higher Sampling Rates
No longer confined to a physical disc, DSD resolutions have gone beyond SACD (see table below). The DSD's one-bit sampling generates a very low signal-to-noise ratio, and "noise shaping" shifts the noise to a high frequency that is filtered out before the final output. The advantage to higher sampling is that the noise is spread out over a wider frequency band, and the filtering can be relaxed. High-end DSD players offer multiple filtering modes to accommodate high-res DSD files. See SACD, DSD DAC, DXD, DoP, signal-to-noise ratio and high-resolution audio.
           MultiplesDSD          of CD        Number ofFormat      Samples  ---1-Bit Samples---

 SACD
 (DSD64)        64    2,822,400 (2.8 MHz)

 Double-rate
 (DSD128)      128    5,644,800 (5.6 MHz)

 Quad-rate
 (DSD256)      256   11,289,600 (11.2 MHz)

 Octuple-rate
 (DSD512)      512   22,579,920 (22.5 MHz)
References in periodicals archive ?
Degree of external genital malformation at birth in children with a disorder of sex development and subsequent caregiver distress.
KEYWORDS: Ambiguous genitalia, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Disorder of Sex Development.
Long-term outcome of ovotesticular disorder of sex development: a single center experience.
Evaluation of the infant with atypical genitalia (disorder of sex development).
Disorder of sex development. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St.
In conclusion, we report a case of 17[alpha]-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency causing CAH with 46,XY disorder of sex development. Although further research occurs, this work sheds new light on role of cytochrome P450c17 in the steroidogenesis at both the adrenal and the gonadal level and on the harmful consequences of its deficiency in the short and long term, respectively.
Mazen, "A study of gender outcome of Egyptian patients with 46,XY disorder of sex development," Sexual Development : Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of sex Determination and Differentiation, vol.
Dissanayake, "A case series of five Sri Lankan patients with ovotesticular disorder of sex development," Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, vol.
46,XY disorder of sex development in a sudanese patient caused by a novel mutation in the HSD17B3 gene.
Typically, (a) happens because an athlete was born with a disorder of sex development (DSD, sometimes called intersex, and formerly called hermaphroditisms) and (b) occurs when an athlete is transgender.
Parental reports of stigma associated with child's disorder of sex development. Int J Endocrinol 2015;2015:980121.
Arlt et al., "Society for Endocrinology UK guidance on the initial evaluation of an infant or an adolescent with a suspected disorder of sex development (Revised 2015)," Clinical Endocrinology, vol.