aneurysm

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aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 4: Post-right internal carotid artery stenting angiogram showing resolution of a dissecting aneurysm.
Chan, "Dissecting aneurysm of coronary artery presenting as cardiac tamponade," New Zealand Medical Journal, vol.
Siegenthaler, "Dissecting aneurysm of the pulmonary artery with pulmonary hypertension," American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol.
[4.] Anagnostopoulos CE, Prabhakar MJS, Kittle CF (1972) Aortic dissections and dissecting aneurysms. Am J Cardiol 30: 263-273.
Dissecting aneurysm of arteries other than the aorta.J Pathol Bacteriol 1956; 72: 439-49.
[16] did a CFD study using a 3D aortic model reconstructed from CT images of a patient with thoracic aortic dissection to investigate the effect of six biomechanical factors, that is, (i) size of the dissecting aneurysm, (ii) blood pressure, (iii) geometry around the distal tear, (iv) partial thrombosis, (v) distance between the tears, and (vi) shear stress on force on the walls of the false lumen in order to predict chances of rupture.
Hemifacial spasm caused by a spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.
Misdiagnosis of an underlying cardiac condition such as a dissecting aneurysm in the setting of chest pain is a recurring malpractice allegation.
Fig-1: Contrast computed tomography scan showing the type A dissecting aneurysm of the aorta (arrow) with a maximal diameter of 8cm.
COMMENT lust yesterday, a malpractice lawyer presented me with a case very similar to this one: a patient with unexplained chest pain who died of a dissecting aneurysm. Remember, not all chest pain is caused by coronary artery disease.
(1.) Hirst AE, Johns VJ, Kime SW, Dissecting aneurysm of the aorta.