A psychologist testified that Patricia had been suffering from acute dissociative reaction
to a stressful event, which rendered her incapable of knowing right from wrong.
It has been reported that dissociative reaction
is observed frequently between emotions, thoughts and memory in patients with psychogenic seizure and dissociative stress is observed especially while reporting sexual traumas (46, 53, 54, 55).
However, Wilson and Zigelbaum identified three typologies that closely correspond to criminal behavior in PTSD sufferers: dissociative reaction
, sensation-seeking syndrome, and depression-suicidal syndrome.
Initially, the client exhibited a dissociative reaction
to the trauma and tried to cut herself off from reality by isolating herself.
. In: Freedman AM, Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, eds.
Special stress may bring about acute symptomatic expression of such disorders." The Manual went on, then, to list a host of specific disease categories: Anxiety reaction, Dissociative reaction
; Conversion reaction; Phobic reaction; Obsessive compulsive reaction; Depressive reaction, and so on.
He addresses the biology and cognitive features of acute stress disorder, its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, and diagnostic guidelines based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; evidence-based assessment and treatment procedures, such as psychological debriefing, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, and dealing with challenges like avoidance, dissociative reactions
, anger, grief, and rumination; and working with specific populations, such as those with mild traumatic brain injury, military personnel and first responders, and children, and forensic issues.
PTSD symptoms include intrusive memories relative to the stressful event, dissociative reactions
, negative changes in perception of self and others, avoidance to cognitive or behavioral stimuli that may refer to the event, increased arousal and anxiety, sleeping problems, and increased startle response (American Psychiatric Association 2013).
Animal defensive reactions as a model for trauma-induced dissociative reactions
. J Trauma Stress 1998; 11: 243-60.
Although this study found a greater prevalence of childhood trauma and subsequent dissociative reactions
in those with FM, the results do not explain how trauma leads to the development of FM.