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(formerly) the chief magistrate in the republics of Venice (until 1797) and Genoa (until 1805)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the head of the republic of Venice from the late seventh through the 18th centuries and of the republic of Genoa from the 14th through the 18th centuries. In Venice the doge was elected for a life term by the patriciate from among its own ranks through a system of indirect votes, and initially he had great power. After the attempts by some doges to transform their rule into a hereditary seigneury, the Venetian oligarchy gradually (12th-14th centuries) reduced the role of the doge to that of a figurehead. In Genoa the position of lifelong doge was introduced in 1339 but was limited to a term of two years in 1528.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Otto was the son of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and, according to the Venetian legend, had persuaded his father to accept the doges offer to make his peace with Pope Alexander III, a Venetian ally, in 1177.
The Likeness of Venice: A Life of Doge Francesco Foscari, 1373-1457.
This concern with the problematic nature of the body in the Venetian tragedies is signaled by the physical frailty of their almost identical protagonists, two octogenarian Doges who struggle to transcend their physical bodies.
Dogaresse were remembered primarily in the works of later writers who drew on legends that had grown especially around two disgraced doges, Marino Falier (1354-55) and Francesco Foscari (1423-55).
I would take the story further and add a further motive for the placing of the horses on the loggia and that is the deliberate use by the doges of St Mark's Square as a ceremonial hippodrome on the Byzantine model.
When the Doge of the day got the decorators in, he made Derry Irvine look like a DIY amateur.
(Equating culture with civic honor, also claimed by Lorenzo de' Medici for Florence, is a fundamental Renaissance idea.) And it is no accident that Titian or Veronese are more famous today than all the Doges of Venice, because the ethos of Venice as realized in their very achievement, whatever the subject matter of particular paintings, stil l lives, long after the Venetian empire, its merchants and navies, have melted into oblivion.
In accordance with the imperial title assumed by doges after the conquest of Constantinople in 1204 -- "Doge of Venice...and Lord of a quarter and a half of the Roman empire" -- Tiepolo's sarcophagus presents him as the "ruler of Romania" by employing imperial Byzantine motifs.
The two theaters, as we know particularly from Mangini's work, belonged to Ettore Tron and to Alvise Michiel, members of patrician families that had both produced doges, although the Tron were relative latecomers to such an honored state.
The church used by the nuns, called now the chapel of San Tarasio, abutts onto a southern section of the choir in the main church, and it is above the tenth-century crypt that is the burial place of eight early doges. In the vault of the chapel are some early frescoes by Andrea Castagno from 1442 [39] and three wonderful composite altarpieces (ancone) by Antonio Vivarini and Giovanni d'Alemagna, individually commissioned by two nuns, the prioress and abbess (all named) in 1443.
What had stood for 760 years has now been taken from them, when they had spent 46,000 ducats on the church, the convent and the magnificent refectory." [2] A centuries-old, symbiotic relationship between the nuns and their numerous friends in high places -- doges, emperors, popes, Venetian senators, wealthy ecclesiastics, and devout laypersons -- had been summarily dismissed.
In the eyes of the doge, the great virtue of the duke was that he could be counted on not to be another Alviano.