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religious beliefs affirmed by the highest authorities of a church and presented as absolute truth beyond any criticism. The majority of present-day religions— Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism—have a system of dogma.

The basic dogmas of Christianity which were formulated by the first seven ecumenical councils (fourth through eighth centuries), concerned the creation of the world by god, the trinity of god, Christ (god who became man), life beyond the grave, and retribution for sin. In the Orthodox religion the adoption of dogmas was completed in 787, but Catholicism continued to adopt new dogmas (for example, on purgatory) after that date. The Reformation of the 16th century cast doubt on certain Catholic dogmas. The Lutheran Church adopted dogmas in 1530 (the Confession of Augsburg), Calvinism, in 1551, and Anglicanism, in 1571 (the so-called Thirty-nine Articles).

The dogmas of Judaism (for example, the immortality of the one god Yaweh, the sanctity of the Old Testament and the Talmud, and the coming of the messiah) were developed on the basis of the sacred books of Judaism by theologians between the llth and 13th centuries. Islamic dogmas (for example, the unity of the god Allah, prophets and the granting of divine revelations through them, and the prophetic mission of Muhammed) were formulated by theologians on the basis of the Koran during the ninth and tenth centuries. Buddhist dogmas (for example, reincarnation) were formulated in writing in the Hinayana around the first century B.C. and in the Mahayana in the first century A.D. The dogmatic foundations of Hinduism took shape in the early Middle Ages during the struggle against the Buddhists and Muslims; however, they did not develop as a clearly formed system.

In working out dogma, the church attempted to prohibit criticism of the foundations of its religious doctrine and of the social system, which it consecrated. Denials of dogma were cruelly persecuted. With the development of scientific and atheistic views, religious dogmatic thinking crumbled. In the second half of the 20th century—particularly after the Second Vatican Council (1962-65)—the Christian churches have shown a clear tendency toward overcoming the dogmatic contradictions among themselves in order to halt the withdrawal of the people from religion.


References in periodicals archive ?
As it was, the 1950 dogma proclamation had been made despite protests from the Protestant and Orthodox churches and from many Catholics, who simply could not find any evidence in the Bible for this "truth of faith revealed by God.
First, "Damaso" is "directed against religious practice, dogma, or ritual for the purpose of ridicule.
We should vigorously rid our specialty of unproven tenets and detrimental dogmas.
Para una corporacion tan ancestral como la Iglesia catolica, los 150 anos de laicidad mexicana deben revertirse, y por ello, abusando de los avances democraticos que en 1992 permitieron la recuperacion de sus derechos ciudadanos, la jerarquia catolica, en contubernio con la oligarquia vaticana, pugna por la restauracion de un regimen que reconozca que los dogmas estan por encima de cualquier jurisdiccion civil.
This is a timely reminder to the Orthodox to pose questions to (but not to question) their living faith, the truth they claim and the dogma they guard.
Limbo was never defined as a dogma but had become part of common belief.
On August 14 and 15, 2004, Pope John Paul visited the pilgrims' shrine of Lourdes, France, not to obtain healing for his illnesses, but to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception declared so by Blessed Pius IX in 1854.
But it nonetheless allowed creationists to position themselves as believers in an alternative scientific theory rather than mere religious dogma.
Speculative assumptions spared such practical tests often harden into dogmas, which are often used to buttress a political orthodoxy.
The initial hypotheses or dogmas of emerging scientific disciplines serve as the ground for further discoveries and often become more limited in their truth rather than fully disproved with time.
The Brotherhood reveals its susceptibility to many dangerous dogmas as soon as it welcomes Invisible Man into its ranks, after his eviction speech.
The Marian dogmas constitute a barrier to Anglican-Roman Catholic dialogue for reunification.