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Economics a commodity or service that satisfies a human need
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in ethics and philosophy, that which includes definite positive meaning. In philosophy the question of good was posed in attempts to explain the meaning of existence and human life and was treated as the problem of the greatest good (summum bonum in Latin, a term introduced by Aristotle); this greatest good determined the relative value of all other goods. The Greek philosophers viewed the greatest good as happiness— “eudaemonia” —the exact meaning of which was defined in various ways by representatives of different schools. For example, the Cyrenaics and Epicurus defined it as pleasure, the Cynics as abstention from passion, and Aristotle and the Stoics as virtue (in the sense of the supremacy of the higher and more rational forms of nature over the lower). Plato considered “the good” to be “the one” which is the basis of all existence. Aristotle distinguished three kinds of good: corporeal (health, strength), external (wealth, honor, glory), and spiritual (intelligence, moral virtue). In the Middle Ages, scholasticism attempted to rework the ideas of the ancient philosophers in terms of the principles of Christian theism. The result was the identification of the greatest good with god, the source of all good and the ultimate goal of human aspiration.

New European philosophy emphasized the role of the subject in determining any sort of good. T. Hobbes and B. Spinoza said that the good is that for which man is striving, that which he needs. Another development which was characteristic of new European ethics was the utilitarian interpretation of good, which reduces it to the idea of usefulness. Kant distinguished the supreme good from the absolute good. The former is good will and moral virtue; and latter requires that virtue be combined with happiness. Thereafter the concept of the good gradually lost its significance and, from the middle of the 19th century was replaced by the concept of value.

In the narrower and specifically ethical sense of the word, the concept of good is opposite to that of evil.


Material goods Economists consider material goods from two different points of view: in terms of their usefulness (their capacity for satisfying a particular human need) and in terms of how much man has contributed to their production. Accordingly, there are two kinds of value—use value and exchange value. Material goods are usually considered to include consumer goods (services as well as wares) which satisfy a great variety of human needs.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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References in periodicals archive ?
I know Frank Zeidler personally and he is every bit a good, honest Christian, always doing good and seeking peace.
Several participants expressed interest in learning more, and French suggested they start a club to invest in companies that were doing well by doing good.
Lutherans will find it interesting that he exposes racism as a form of the "bondage of the will." "Which white supremacist would not smirk at the claim that he has no free will, that God has determined whether he is truly God--and that he does evil when he thinks he is doing good?" (p.
That the most acceptable service we render to Him is in doing good to His other Children.
In Angelmouse: Cloud Nine, the hero loses his halo for being bad, but then gets it back for doing good. With colour illustrations.
Obviously Rural Studio is doing good. But would they have been published in an international magazine if they had not tried to imprint their work with clear signs to make it plainly Architecture?
Champions of federal support for faith-based organizations understand the effort as an enterprise that succeeds in doing good, often where secular efforts fail.
She speaks candidly about what CBI hopes to accomplish for its member companies (Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Monsanto, Syngenta, BASF, Bayer and Aventis), and her marketing strategies to get consumers to think more favorably about biotechnology and its immense possibilities for doing good in the world.
Jones describes the book as "a thoughtful look at how an unassuming man impacted thousands of lives and unwittingly catapulted himself into American folklore merely by going about doing good." He is quite clear that this "thoughtful look" is not meant to sort fantasy from fact, recognizing that a genuine legend is always a blend of myth and reality.
The three faces are those of the infant Jesus, the adult Christ who "went about doing good", and the Saviour suffering on our behalf.
Nonetheless, if you are looking for "best practices" in doing good, this is the place to be.
You can do well by doing good. Just be prepared to work hard.