# cephalic index

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## index, cephalic:

see cephalic indexcephalic index
[Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions.
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## cephalic index

(səfăl`ĭk) [Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions. The index is obtained by dividing the maximum width of the cranium by its maximum length and multiplying by 100. In anthropometryanthropometry
, technique of measuring the human body in terms of dimensions, proportions, and ratios such as those provided by the cephalic index. Once the standard approach to racial classification and comparing humans to other primates, the technique is now used for deciding
, the cephalic index has been the favored measurement. A cephalic index of 80 or more is called brachycephalic or broad; a measurement between 75 and 80 is mesaticephalic; below 75 is considered dolicocephalic or long. The cranial index is the same ratio taken on a skull.

## Cephalic Index

the ratio of the head’s greatest breadth (transverse diameter) to its greatest length (longitudinal diameter), expressed in percent.

The cephalic index is used in anthropology for determining the head contour in the horizontal plane. When the index is under 74.9 it is called dolichocephalic; between 75.0 and 79.9, mesaticephalic; and above 80.0, brachycephalic. With the aid of the cephalic index, local anthropological types can be isolated within the major races of man. Group variations in cephalic index are already reflected in early childhood. In comparison with earlier times, there has been an increase since the Middle Ages in the cephalic index (brachycephali-zation), although a decrease in the index (debrachycephaliza-tion) was recorded at a number of locations between 1950 and 1970. The cephalic index is not related to intellect.

V. P. CHTETSOV

## Cephalic Index

in anthropology, the degree of protuberance of the face and the parts of the face in a vertical or horizontal plane. A vertical cephalic index is characterized by the facial angle, by the angle of the nasal portion of the face, or by the angle of the alveolar portion of the face.

A face is classified according to its facial angle. Thus, a prognathous face has an angle up to 79.9°, a mesognathous face has an angle of 80.0° to 84.9°, and an orthognathous face has an angle of 85° or more. A horizontal cephalic index determines facial flatness at the level of the root of nose; it also determines the degree of protuberance of the cheekbones. Cephalic indexes are good racial indicators.

## cephalic index

[sə′fal·ik ′in‚deks]
(anthropology)
The ratio of maximum breadth to maximum length of the head multiplied by 100.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gender Group Dolichocephalic Mesocephalic 1 Male 215 (19.19%) 754 (67.32%) 2 Female 189 (20%) 427 (45.91%) Sl.
The 69.44% of patients were mesocephalic, 22.22% and 11.11% brachycephalic dolichocephalic. The most common breeds were Labrador, poodle and pinscher seven respectively.
The angles to be analyzed were: the nasolabial angle, formed by the nose columnela and the nasolabial projection; the interincisal angle conformed by the upper and lower incisors; the mentolabial groove depth, that gave the length of depth between the lower lip and the chin; and the mandibular plane angle, which divide the sample, due to its degree of divergence with Frankfort's plane, into brachycephalic ([greater than or equal to] 25[degrees]), mesocephalic ([greater than or equal to] 30[degrees]) and dolichocephalic ([greater than or equal to] 35[degrees]) (Fig.
Table-1: Distribution of cephalic phenotypes of males and females Cephalic Cephalic Male Female Phenotype Index N % N % Ultradolichocephalic 55.0-59.9 0 0 0 0 Hyperdolichocephalic 60.0-64.9 0 0 0 0 Dolichocephalic 65-74.9 62 31.41 32 27.20 Mesocephalic 75-79.9 86 45.06 40 34 Brachycephalic 80-84.9 36 18.86 28 23.8 Hyperbrachycephalic 85-89.9 04 2.09 09 7.65 Ultrabrachycephalic 90.0-94.9 03 1.57 09 7.65 Total 191 100 118 100
(57) "Regional continuity of mtDNA haplogroup frequency distributions occurs in the presence of marked discontinuity in craniometric features, suggesting an ancestral/descendant relationship between the younger brachycephalic [wide skull] and the older dolichocephalic [narrow skull] populations." (58) Furthermore, ancient remains whose cranial morphology differs from modern Native Americans were found through genetic testing to have haplogroups similar to modern Native American populations.
In the discussion of osteology (chapter 10, by Frohlich, Garofalo, and Ortner), we learn that individuals buried at Bab edh-Dhra' were robust, long-faced (dolichocephalic), and slightly smaller than contemporary Middle Eastern populations (average of 1.66m for men and 1.56m for women).
(31) In the 1960s, the researcher Ata Dzhikiev argued that the connection between the contemporary Turkmen and ancient peoples could be proven thanks to the studies of Oshanin, who linked them to the local dolichocephalic Caspian race.
I had hardly expected so dolichocephalic a skull or such well marked supra-orbital development.
He also had a short nose with anteverted nares, a palpable sagittal suture, and a dolichocephalic skull shape (figure 2).
An ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan hair, and Aryan eyes, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar.' We know, if the good Mueller did not, that the sins of burbling on about brachycephalic grammars or dolichocephalic dictionaries are left behind by those of expatiating on 'Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan hair, and Aryan eyes.' And isn't Mueller here already reifying race as inextricably linked to biology with his gobbledygook of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic?
A cranial index of less than 80 was dolichocephalic (Greek for "long head"), while one of over 80 was brachycephalic (wide head).
All the skulls studied classified as dolichocephalic (34 male/ 16 female), mesocephalic (29 male/ 32 female) and brachycephalic (21 male/ 18 female) were free from macroscopic abnormalities.

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