IDEA

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idea

1. Philosophy
a. a private mental object, regarded as the immediate object of thought or perception
b. a Platonic Idea or Form
2. Music a thematic phrase or figure; motif

Idea

 

a form by which the phenomena of objective reality are comprehended in thought, a form that includes within itself a consciousness of purpose and projections of further knowledge of the world and its transformation in practice.

The concept “idea” was first introduced in classical antiquity. Democritus applied the term “ideas” to his atoms—indivisible, intelligible forms. For Plato ideas are incorporeal ideal essences, which constitute the truly objective reality and exist apart from concrete objects and phenomena; they constitute a separate ideal world. In the Middle Ages ideas were understood as the archetypes of things belonging to the divine spirit; god created things according to his ideas, or ideal forms. In the modern period, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the theoretical and cognitive aspect of the idea came to the fore; the doctrine that ideas are modes of human knowledge was developed, and the question of the origin of ideas, of their cognitive value, and of their relation to the objective world was raised. Empiricism linked ideas with human sense perceptions and sensations; rationalism linked them with the spontaneous activity of thinking. The theory of ideas had an important place in classical German idealism: Kant called ideas notions of reason, for which there were no corresponding objects in sense perception. For Fichte, ideas were immanent goals according to which the Ego created the world. For Hegel, the idea was objective truth, the coincidence of the subject and the object crowning the whole process of development (see Soch., vol. 6, Moscow, 1939, p. 214).

In the Marxist-Leninist conception, the fundamental starting point is the materialist thesis of knowledge as a reflection of reality and of ideas as specific forms of this reflection. “All ideas are drawn from experience; they are reflections of reality, whether accurate or distorted” (F. Engels; in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, p. 629). However, an idea cannot be reduced to the registration of the data of experience. It is a reflection of the thing, quality, or relation not only in its present state of being but also in its necessity and potentiality, in its developmental tendency. Lenin regarded ideas as the highest form of the theoretical mastery of reality. He wrote in his conspectus of Hegel’s Science of Logic, “Begriff [the Notion] is still not the highest concept: still higher is the Idea = the unity of the Begriff and Reality” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 151). In the idea, there occurs the fullest coincidence between the content of thought and objective reality. This is objective, concrete, comprehensive knowledge of reality, knowledge that is ready for its practical embodiment. These two moments of the idea, the reflection of objective reality and the positing of a practical goal for man, exist in an organic unity and give to the idea its specific quality and its place in the process of human consciousness. Thus, the idea is an active mediating link in the development of reality and in the process of practical human activity, which creates new, previously nonexistent forms of reality.

In science ideas perform various roles. They not only summarize the experience of preceding scientific development in one or another sphere but also serve as a basis for synthesizing knowledge into some sort of an integral system, performing the role of active heuristic principles for explaining phenomena and seeking new ways to solve problems. Depending on their content, ideas, reflecting social existence, influence the course of social life in different ways. Reactionary ideas, which distort reality and serve the interests of classes on their way out of the historical arena, function as brakes upon social progress. Ideas that accurately and profoundly reflect real processes and express the interests of progressive social classes help to accelerate social progress and to organize and mobilize these classes to overthrow the obsolete and to introduce the new and progressive.

P. V. KOPNIN

idea

[ī′dē·ə]
(psychology)
A mental impression or thought.
An experience or thought not directly due to an external sensory stimulation.

IDEA

(language)

IDEA

(algorithm)

IDEA

(International Data Encryption Algorithm) A secret-key cryptography method that uses a 128-bit key. Introduced in 1992, its European patent is held by Ascom-Tech AG, Solothurn, Switzerland. Written by Xuejia Lai and James Massey, it uses the block cipher method that breaks the text into 64-bit blocks before encrypting them. See PGP.
References in periodicals archive ?
4 highlights the similarity between different sorts of 'dominant idea'--the negative/bizarre ideation of depression and schizophrenia; the notion "I must save myself" on hearing "Fire!" in a crowded theatre; the immersion in listening to music; the recall of long-forgotten things on seeing an old snapshot; the hope that the champion's now-airborne shot will score the winning goal with only three seconds left in the match, etc.
One of the most interesting and important puzzles in international relations involves the shift in the dominant ideas held by Americans regarding foreign policy during World War II.
In line with Marx and Engel's later works after the Communist Manifesto arguing for a dialectical and nuanced understanding of the course of history not a simple economically reductive one, Gramsci proposed that dominant ideas are translated, negotiated and mediated into socio-cultural conditions of existence.
I'm not saying that that's wrong, but (it has become) so much that our dominant idea of God is that of a judge ready to hit us back.
He concedes that antigovernment Reaganism "became the dominant idea in American politics, as a cyclical adjustment in history shifted the emphasis of patriotic language from citizenship to command, shrinking the public space" (770).
A dominant idea in Scholars' Bedlam is that some humanists used Menippeanism as an acceptable literary form to deflate their own pretensions and to critique humanism itself.
Among her topics are the view from Earth, forms of experience, STEM-professional women's range of anchor points, the Canadian space industry's forms of context and STEM-professional women's dominant ideas and practices, and revealing the "how" of an exclusionary order and social justice initiatives.
On the other hand, according to Hammerman, by visualizing Jewishness primarily through the Hasidic man, Les aventures de Rabbi Jacob draws narrow conceptual, cultural, and spatial boundaries around Jewishness, excluding less visible Jewish identities that are historically and ideologically more troubling to dominant ideas of Frenchness.
From the 1970s to the present, fat activists have challenged dominant ideas about obesity.
Kenyans, so empowered, have used their newfound power to question the old authorities, including those in the media, such as this media group.SOCIAL MEDIAbrThis is a welcome development because progress comes not from acquiescing but challenging the dominant ideas of the day.
And as Marx said, analysing economic determinism, the dominant ideas of every period were the ideas of the ruling class.