Dominant

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dominant

1. Genetics
a. (of an allele) producing the same phenotype in the organism irrespective of whether the allele of the same gene is identical or dissimilar
b. (of a character) controlled by such a gene
2. Music of or relating to the fifth degree of a scale
3. Ecology (of a plant or animal species within a community) more prevalent than any other species and determining the appearance and composition of the community
4. Genetics
a. a dominant allele or character
b. an organism having such an allele or character
5. Music
a. the fifth degree of a scale and the second in importance after the tonic
b. a key or chord based on this
6. Ecology a dominant plant or animal in a community

Dominant

 

(in architecture), the major element in the composition of an ensemble. It is usually a tall building, for example, the main building of Moscow State University on Lenin Hills in Moscow, or the vertical part of one of the buildings, such as the tower and spire of the Admiralty Building in Leningrad. Rising above the surrounding structures, the dominant marks the focal point in the spatial arrangement of the ensemble.


Dominant

 

(in music), a harmonic function of a major or minor scale exhibiting a strong tendency toward the tonic. The fifth degree of the scale is the basis of the dominant chord and is itself called the dominant. Chords built on the seventh and third degrees of the scale also fulfill the function of a dominant. The tendency of dominant chords toward the tonic is related to the presence of the leading tone in the chords. The resolution of the dominant into the tonic establishes the tonality with greatest certainty. The tonality whose tonic is the basic dominant is called dominant.


Dominant

 

in physiology, a focus of excitation in the central nervous system that temporarily determines the nature of the body’s response to external and internal stimulation.

The dominant nerve center (or group of centers) is highly excitable and capable of maintaining this elevated excitability for a long time—even after the initial stimulus is no longer active. While summing the relatively weak stimuli of other centers, the dominant simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect on them. Under natural conditions the dominant is formed under the influence of reflex excitation or after certain hormones have acted on the nerve centers. A dominant can be created experimentally by applying a weak electric current or certain drugs directly to the nerve centers. The dominance of some nerve centers over others was first described by N. E. Vvedenskii in 1881.

In elucidating the mechanisms of formation of conditioned reflexes, I. P. Pavlov pointed out that the sustained elevation of excitability of various regions of the cerebral cortex largely determines the dynamics of higher nervous activity both in pathology and in health. A. A. Ukhtomskii formulated the main elements of the theory of the dominant as a general principle of function of nerve centers on the basis of experiments that he and his co-workers performed between 1911 and 1923. The function of a dominant is made apparent in the readiness of an organ to function and maintain its functional state. The dominant in the higher brain centers is the physiological basis of a number of mental phenomena, such as attention.

REFERENCES

Ukhtomskii, A. A. Dominanta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Mekhaniimy dominanty. Leningrad, 1967. (Symposium materials.)

N. G. ALEKSEEV and M. IU. UL’IANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
On the non dominant side arthodesis is done at 50-70 degree flexion which is a better position for some professions and also gives better cosmetic appearance.
Comparison of Scapular Resting Position in Racquet Players Between Dominant and Non-dominant Sides (a) Spino-Scapular Groups Distance, cm Dominant Side Non-Dominant Side At level of spine of 8.52 [+ or -] 1.38 8.34 [+ or -] 1.43 scapula At level of inferior 10.23 [+ or -] 1.43 9.86 [+ or -] 1.40 angle of scapula Spino-Scapular Groups Distance, cm P Value At level of spine of > 0.05 scapula At level of inferior < 0.05 angle of scapula (a) P values less than 0.05 are considered as significant.
The logistic regression was adjusted additionally for incremental changes of torque/body weight extension of the dominant and nondominant side (TQ/BW-ext-dominant and nondominant side); torque/body weight extension of the dominant side after treatment (TQ/BW-ext-dominant-side after treatment); torque/body weight flexion of the dominant side after treatment (TQ/BW-flex-dominant side after treatment); and decremental changes of subcategories in the Lequesne index: (I) change of pain or discomfort, (II) change of maximum distance walked, and (III) change of activities of daily living.
The Toon tightened up as the game continued, but United were the dominant side throughout, and Ferguson's second half change in bringing Antonio Valencia on for Shinji Kagawa clogged up any opportunities the north eastern club were getting and effectively shut the game down.
I thought from the start to finish we were the dominant side and created far more chances," Allardyce said.
Planned pairwise comparisons showed that the mean RMS value of the dominant side was significantly lower in the final evaluation when compared to the initial (p < 0.001), evaluation 1 (p < 0.001), evaluation 2 (p < 0.01) to the quick-massage chair sitting condition, and typing with and without forearm supports.
If either sounds like you, thank the dominant side of your brain.
Our study showed that the risk of low BMD in the distal radius was 3.35 times higher in patients with non-dominant side upper extremity injuries than in patients with dominant side upper extremity injuries.
But we were the dominant side and that's a positive."
Rovers, the dominant side throughout, were unable to capitalise on a succession of chances and needed a late strike from Jay Gibbs to secure all three Northwest Conference points after Macclesfield levelled against the run of play.
Wolfsburg were by far the dominant side though and Dzeko somehow missed another golden opportunity after 18 minutes, this time glancing the ball wide from another wonderful cross.

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