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doping,in electronics: see semiconductorsemiconductor,
solid material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator (see conduction; insulation). At high temperatures its conductivity approaches that of a metal, and at low temperatures it acts as an insulator.
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pharmacological and other agents that when injected into the body quickly and temporarily stimulate its physical and nervous activity.
Doping has been known since ancient times when it was used by cultists, shamans, and warriors in Africa, India, ancient Greece, Rome, and elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century doping became widespread in a number of countries as a means of increasing the speed of race horses. In the 20th century doping began to be used in sports in some capitalist countries. Studies have been published on the search for and use of dope in medicine, veterinary medicine, and so forth.
Among the agents that can be used as dope (depending on the specific nature of the sport or other activity) are sympathomimetic amines (amphetamine, methylamphetamine, ephedrine), central nervous system stimulants and analeptics (strychnine, transaminum, indopanum, leptamine), narcotics and pain relievers (morphine and its derivatives, opium), general stimulants (preparations of ginseng, Schizandra chinensis, and Rhaponticum carthamoides, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), tranquilizers (Valium, Librium, Andaxin, Noxyronum), and ethyl alcohol in various mixtures.
The use of dope in sports makes conditions unequal, and it may do physical and mental harm to human beings. Many cases of poisoning of athletes are known abroad. Fatalities caused by taking dope have been recorded in international boxing and bicycling competitions. In some countries (for example, Belgium and Italy) where the use of dope is widespread, state laws forbidding it have been passed. Since the fight against dope is a matter of great moral, ethical, legal, and sports significance, the International Olympic Committee meeting in Lausanne on Dec. 20, 1967, decided to ban the use of dope in sports and to organize antidoping controls at international competitions. An athlete found using dope is disqualified.
V. A. SEMENOV, N. A. FROLOCHKINA and E. E. CHERKASOV