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Related to doping: blood doping, semiconductor


semiconductor, solid material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator (see conduction; insulation). At high temperatures its conductivity approaches that of a metal, and at low temperatures it acts as an insulator. In a semiconductor there is a limited movement of electrons, depending upon the crystal structure of the material used. The substances first used for semiconductors were the elements germanium, silicon, and gray tin. It was found that the incorporation of certain impurities in them enhances their conductive properties. The impurities either add free electrons or create holes (electron deficiencies) in the crystal structures of the host substances by attracting electrons. Thus there are two types of semiconductor: the N-type (negative), in which the current carriers (electrons) are negative, and the P-type (positive), in which the positively charged holes move and carry the current. The process of adding these impurities is called doping; the impurities themselves are called dopants. Dopants that contribute mobile electrons are called donor impurities; those that cause holes to form are acceptor impurities. Undoped semiconductor material is called intrinsic semiconductor material. Certain chemical compounds, including gallium arsenide, indium antimonide, and aluminum phosphide are semiconductors. Semiconductors are used to produce such electronic devices as diodes, transistors, and computer memory devices. The field of solid-state physics includes the study of semiconductors. See also integrated circuit.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



pharmacological and other agents that when injected into the body quickly and temporarily stimulate its physical and nervous activity.

Doping has been known since ancient times when it was used by cultists, shamans, and warriors in Africa, India, ancient Greece, Rome, and elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century doping became widespread in a number of countries as a means of increasing the speed of race horses. In the 20th century doping began to be used in sports in some capitalist countries. Studies have been published on the search for and use of dope in medicine, veterinary medicine, and so forth.

Among the agents that can be used as dope (depending on the specific nature of the sport or other activity) are sympathomimetic amines (amphetamine, methylamphetamine, ephedrine), central nervous system stimulants and analeptics (strychnine, transaminum, indopanum, leptamine), narcotics and pain relievers (morphine and its derivatives, opium), general stimulants (preparations of ginseng, Schizandra chinensis, and Rhaponticum carthamoides, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), tranquilizers (Valium, Librium, Andaxin, Noxyronum), and ethyl alcohol in various mixtures.

The use of dope in sports makes conditions unequal, and it may do physical and mental harm to human beings. Many cases of poisoning of athletes are known abroad. Fatalities caused by taking dope have been recorded in international boxing and bicycling competitions. In some countries (for example, Belgium and Italy) where the use of dope is widespread, state laws forbidding it have been passed. Since the fight against dope is a matter of great moral, ethical, legal, and sports significance, the International Olympic Committee meeting in Lausanne on Dec. 20, 1967, decided to ban the use of dope in sports and to organize antidoping controls at international competitions. An athlete found using dope is disqualified.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The addition of impurities to a semiconductor to achieve a desired characteristic, as in producing an n-type or p-type material. Also known as semiconductor doping.
Coating the mold or mandrel with a substance which will prevent the molded plywood part from sticking to it and will facilitate removal.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Altering the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor material, such as silicon, by chemically combining it with foreign elements. It results in an excess of electrons (n-type) or a lack of electrons (p-type) in the silicon. See n-type silicon and silicon.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Thirty-three countries, Interpol, the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), and the World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) joined forces in the Europol-coordinated operation Viribus for a massive crackdown on the trafficking of doping materials and counterfeit medicines.
On Thursday, ADAK said that it will support the suspension of cheating athletes by Athletics Integrity Unit while Athletics Kenya warned those involved in doping to stop the vice.
The researchers looked specifically at the emotions and attitudes toward doping anticipated by the survey participants.
He said a doping control officer had the prerogative to test an athlete at home or during competitions as there were in-competition and out-of-competition tests.
Tom May, a director from the World Anti-Doping Agency, said that besides the doping tests, education serves as an ideal tool in preventing the use of banned substances.
Staff, students and members of the public are invited to the seminar, 'A secure, efficient and versatile approach in the race against gene doping', which takes place in room 2A13 of the Cottrell Building between 2pm and 4pm on Thursday August 30.
But the report said: "We do not think it would be effective to subject doping athletes to criminal procedures and penalties.
Recently, Russia was banned from the 2018 Winter Olympics for alleged doping of its athletes at the 2014 Sochi Olympics.
In recent years, scholars have done a lot of research on the doping modification of Sn[O.sub.2].
At the moment, the IOC has canceled 29 weightlifting medals and 49 people have been tested positive for doping.
Defender Jones has been suspended for two matches for verbally abusing a doping control officer after being selected for testing following the match against Ajax in Stockholm on May 24.
Specialists working in a variety of fields in Europe, North America, Qatar, and New Zealand describe the history of anti-doping, the development of the World Anti-Doping Code, legal challenges, the effects of the legal and sport environment on a future anti-doping code, the structure and development of the list of prohibited substances and methods, therapeutic use exemptions, challenges in anti-doping analytical science, anti-doping research, gene and cell doping, how to personalize testing across an athleteAEs career, next-generation omics approaches, the integration of the forensic dimension into anti-doping strategies, how to develop intelligence gathering, anti-doping education, a psychological approach to value-based prevention, and moral aspects.