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Related to doping: blood doping, semiconductor


in electronics: see semiconductorsemiconductor,
solid material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator (see conduction; insulation). At high temperatures its conductivity approaches that of a metal, and at low temperatures it acts as an insulator.
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pharmacological and other agents that when injected into the body quickly and temporarily stimulate its physical and nervous activity.

Doping has been known since ancient times when it was used by cultists, shamans, and warriors in Africa, India, ancient Greece, Rome, and elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century doping became widespread in a number of countries as a means of increasing the speed of race horses. In the 20th century doping began to be used in sports in some capitalist countries. Studies have been published on the search for and use of dope in medicine, veterinary medicine, and so forth.

Among the agents that can be used as dope (depending on the specific nature of the sport or other activity) are sympathomimetic amines (amphetamine, methylamphetamine, ephedrine), central nervous system stimulants and analeptics (strychnine, transaminum, indopanum, leptamine), narcotics and pain relievers (morphine and its derivatives, opium), general stimulants (preparations of ginseng, Schizandra chinensis, and Rhaponticum carthamoides, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), tranquilizers (Valium, Librium, Andaxin, Noxyronum), and ethyl alcohol in various mixtures.

The use of dope in sports makes conditions unequal, and it may do physical and mental harm to human beings. Many cases of poisoning of athletes are known abroad. Fatalities caused by taking dope have been recorded in international boxing and bicycling competitions. In some countries (for example, Belgium and Italy) where the use of dope is widespread, state laws forbidding it have been passed. Since the fight against dope is a matter of great moral, ethical, legal, and sports significance, the International Olympic Committee meeting in Lausanne on Dec. 20, 1967, decided to ban the use of dope in sports and to organize antidoping controls at international competitions. An athlete found using dope is disqualified.



The addition of impurities to a semiconductor to achieve a desired characteristic, as in producing an n-type or p-type material. Also known as semiconductor doping.
Coating the mold or mandrel with a substance which will prevent the molded plywood part from sticking to it and will facilitate removal.


Altering the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor material, such as silicon, by chemically combining it with foreign elements. It results in an excess of electrons (n-type) or a lack of electrons (p-type) in the silicon. See n-type silicon and silicon.
References in periodicals archive ?
But the report said: "We do not think it would be effective to subject doping athletes to criminal procedures and penalties.
Serufho also said the issue regarding Isaac Makwala had been closed following reports that he did not corporate with the doping control team.
Dr Rodchenkov, former head of the Moscow Anti-Doping Laboratory, helped to run Russia's doping programme.
UEFA's statement read: "The club (United) has been charged for infringements of the UEFA anti-doping regulations (ADR) concerning the doping control procedure.
Vijay Goel has taken serious note of the incidence of doping in the country and has directed National Anti Doping Agency ( NADA), Indian Olympic Association, National Sports Federations and Sports Authority of India ( SAI) to adopt a policy of ' zero tolerance' towards doping," a statement from the Ministry read.
Studies conducted so far suggest that factors associated with doping behaviour in one group (type of sport, gender, even socio-cultural environment) are rarely equally associated with doping behaviour in other sportspecific groups (Furjan Mandic et al.
Several were arrested but there was no doping legislation in place to charge the suspects under so the case faded into the pit of collective amnesia that swallows even the most headline-generating Kenyan issues with time.
Russia is at the heart of the biggest doping scandal in sports, and its track and field athletes are suspended as a result of a probe into doping accusations, putting their participation in this year's Olympics in doubt.
The second report compiled by an independent commission of the World Anti-Doping Agency into the Russian doping scandal said the IAAF Council - which included Coe at the time - "could not have been unaware of the extent of doping in athletics".
The diffraction patterns of La-doped ZnO were similar to the undoped ZnO showing that lanthanum doping in ZnO did not affect its crystal structure.
The WADA independent commission report which said Russia was guilty of state-sponsored doping also added that it was not the only country "facing the problem of orchestrated doping in sport".