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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a mixture used in the bread-baking, baranka (Russian national baked goods), confectionery, and macaroni industries, as well as in the preparation of baked goods in the home. Dough is made by mixing flour, water, yeast, salt, sugar, shortening, and other ingredients. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, acids, and salts in various states—as expanding colloids, suspensions, and solutions.

In the bread-baking industry, dough is prepared with fermenting agents. In rye-flour dough, ferments are used, and in wheat-flour dough, yeast in liquid, cake, or dry form. The fermenting process, which occurs through the action of alcohol and acid, makes the dough light, gives it necessary physical and chemical characteristics, and provides bread with its pleasant taste and aroma. Wheat-flour dough is made either with or without leavening, whereas rye-flour dough is fermented with a starter or other fermenting agent.

In making rolls and pastries with wheat flour, such ingredients as fat, sugar, eggs, and flavoring are added to the dough, besides yeast and salt. This improves the taste, aroma, and nutritional value of these products.

The dough for most confectionery products is prepared without fermentation but with increased amounts of sugar, fat, eggs, and other ingredients. For many types of confectionery products, such as gingerbread and cookies, the dough is leavened with chemical leavening agents. The paste or dough for macaroni is not fermented, whereas the dough for baranki undergoes fermentation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Each one has that unique taste of Italy in every single bite and our doughs are hand made and stretched to offer our customers the best possible taste and texture.
All pizzas, which are cooked in a custom built wood fired oven, are made either using handstretched Neapolitan style thin dough with a puffed up crust or sourdough for those who prefer their pizzas a little more robust.
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Most breads require kneading (the process of stretching the dough) to develop the gluten and evenly distribute the ingredients.
FOR THE VANILLA DOUGH: 500g plain flour 300g unsalted butter, at room temperature, diced 150g icing sugar 2 tsp vanilla extract 2 free-range egg yolks FOR THE CHOCOLATE DOUGH: 290g plain flour 30g cocoa powder 180g unsalted butter, at room temperature, cut into cubes 90g icing sugar 2 free-range egg yolks EXTRAS: The left-over egg whites for gluing the dough together Pinch of salt Pastry brush METHOD: To make the vanilla dough, sift the flour into a bowl.
Tip: If large amounts of poolish are required for various doughs, it is much easier to divide it into separate containers for each final dough right after it is mixed, instead of measuring after it matures.
* Demonstrate how to work with yeast in straight doughs by preparing the recipes in this chapter.
If the mixture is too dry, add a little milk until it comes together in a soft dough.
Low-intensity ultrasound is sensitive to the presence of bubbles within dough's viscoelastic matrix.