The downward mobility
experienced by contemporary youth is not simply economic, given that the life pathways of youth are also shifting in ways that might reflect the relaxation of social norms and changes in normative benchmarks in the transition from youth to adulthood.
In terms of class, it is little surprise that while women from lower income households aspire to skilled and professional jobs, women from upper and middle classes do not pursue a job that results in downward mobility
. For women in economically sound households for whom it is a given that they will train in professions, and their knowledge of English is a great asset in this.
This downward mobility
in terms of job availabilities stems from current government policies.
is observed when certain capital elites transferred to the provinces for term appointments, while upward mobility can be seen where wealthy merchants, clergy, military, and other non-officeholder elite families moved into the capital region.
The iconic "faithful widow" of the late Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, who underwent countless ordeals serving her mother-in-law and was told to commit suicide if pressured to remarry, is explained as a cultural response to increasing social fluidity that made protection of the patriline a paramount defense against downward mobility
. Only in the Yuan, in fact, did self-professed "Learning of the Way" scholars start to emphasize widow fidelity as such as the prime example of women's principled behavior.
He added, "The idea that downward mobility
is more likely today than upward mobility turns the American dream on its head, and is an indicator of how badly confidence has been eroded."
Today's fiftysomethings may be part of the first generation in American history to experience this kind of lifetime downward mobility
, in which at every stage of adult life, they have had less income and less net wealth than did people who were their age ten years before.
Cultures typified by such negative social capital outcomes enforce downward mobility
norms, whereby attempts by network members to engage with mainstream society are perceived as deviant and are socially sanctioned.
those that presented downward mobility
(12,14,16), regardless of the measurement of social mobility used (schooling, income, or occupational classification).
She added: "It is not that there has been an increase in the risk of downward mobility
but rather an increase in the numbers 'at risk', or the proportion of children starting off in professional and managerial families."