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one of the basic processes in spinning; it thins half-finished products—slivers and rovings—to obtain yarn of desired fineness. The yarn is thinned by lengthening the product through the displacement of the yarn’s fibers. The fibers, under the action of mutual friction, straighten out and lie parallel, creating yarn with better structure. The Russian scientist N. A. Vasil’ev is the founder of the theory of drafting. Drafting is done by drafting machines.
The making of drawings of objects, structures, or systems that have been visualized by engineers, scientists, or others. Such drawings may be executed in the following ways: manually with drawing instruments and other aids such as templates and appliqués, freehand with pencil on paper, or with automated devices.
Engineers often draft their own designs to determine whether they are workable, structurally sound, and economical. However, much routine drafting is done under the supervision of engineers by technicians specifically trained as drafters. See Computer graphics, Engineering drawing
Graphic symbols have replaced pictorial representations leading to the introduction of templates that carry frequently used symbols, from which the draftsman quickly traces the symbols in the required positions on the drawing.
Where the design procedures from which drawings are developed are repetitive, computers can be programmed to perform the design and to produce their outputs as instructions to automatic drafting equipment. Essentially, automated drafting is a method for creating an engineering drawing or similar document consisting of line delineation either in combination with, or expressed entirely by, alphanumeric characters.
The computer receives as input a comparatively simplified definition of the product design in a form that establishes a mathematical or digital definition of the object to be described graphically. The computer then applies programmed computations, standards, and formatting to direct the graphics-producing device. This method provides for close-tolerance accuracy of delineation and produces at speeds much greater than possible by manual drafting. In addition, the computer can be programmed to check the design information for accuracy, completeness, and continuity during the processing cycle.