The objective is to accurately calculate the pressure field in order to obtain both lift and

drag coefficients, keeping in mind the crucial importance of capturing the boundary layer separation accurately, as this is the point before which the maximum lift coefficient is determined.

In summary, three

drag coefficient approaches are used: a drift-velocity approach named DVA, an existing

drag coefficient approach DCA, and the proposed

drag coefficient approach [DCA.sup.*] (see Figure 1).

The inputs are same as those of RGF, while the outputs are lift and

drag coefficients. Therefore, the function of this model can be depicted as

Principally, this paper investigates the influence of buoyancy and channel confinement on recirculation length,

drag coefficient, Strouhal number, and heat transfer rate.

To take the particle shape in the equation of motion into account, the

drag coefficient [c.sub.d] has to be specified.

Where [C.sub.d] is a

drag coefficient and a function of the Reynolds number.

Because of the significant difference in particle geometry and thus in

drag coefficient between oil shale ash and FCC fine catalyst, the inlet velocity producing the balance between the above effects for oil shale ash is smaller than that for FCC fine catalyst, as observed in our experiment.

L/D ratio: From the Lift and

Drag coefficients plots following results are generated.

The predictions from the two such models were compared with experimental data for a real model of BMW 5-series which has a

drag coefficient of 0.27 [21].

where [F.sub.D], [F.sub.L], and [M.sub.Z] are the drag force, the lift force, and the torsional moment, respectively; [C.sub.D], [C.sub.L], and [C.sub.M] are the

drag coefficient, the lift coefficient, and the moment coefficient, respectively; Lis the models' reference length (L - 1400 mm); d is the diameter of naked conductor; V is wind velocity (V - 20 m/s); and p is the air density.

We compare the vibration amplitude, lift coefficient, and

drag coefficient of the bare cylinder with the cylinder with the plate.

where [L.sub.c] represents average trajectory length of the subject pedestrian demand (m); [L.sub.0] is crosswalk length (m); [mathematical expression not reproducible] is adjusted

drag coefficient; [u.sub.0] represents average speed of discharge pedestrians (m/s); w represents the crosswalk width (m); [P.sub.2] represents the number of subject pedestrians.