These observations provide an excellent opportunity to examine the vertical temperature profile of the upper ocean beneath a hurricane, in conjunction with the HIRAD surface wind field observations and dropsonde observations from TCI.
The dropsonde observations were quality controlled using the Atmospheric Sounding Processing Environment (ASPEN) software package along with a subsequent manual evaluation by a team of TCI scientists, with each data point being reviewed by at least two scientists (Bell et al.
In addition, measurements were taken during summer T-PARC by the Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance (DOTSTAR) effort in the vicinity of the Taiwan region.
Extra soundings from the Russian radiosonde network, as well as dropsonde observations made from three manned aircraft (NOAA's Gulfstream-IV and two U.
Rotunno, 2005: Dropsonde observations
in low-level jets over the northeastern Pacific Ocean from CALJET-1998 and PACJET-2001: Mean vertical-profile and atmospheric-river characteristics.
This program also motivated the initiation of Taiwan's annual Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) program in 2003.
Weisman, 2016: Impact of assimilating dropsonde observations from MPEX on ensemble forecasts of severe weather events.
Global Hawk dropsonde observations
of equivalent potential temperature [[theta].
Based on available guidance, it was anticipated that dropsonde observations collected from eastern Utah through southwestern Colorado and northern New Mexico would better document this jet and upperlevel frontal structure (Fig.
Ongoing retrospective studies find the assimilation of dropsonde observations primarily impacts the eastward progression of the bowing segment, improving the timing and location of convection for this event.
This first set of dropsonde observations
improved mean hurricane-track forecasts from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model by as much as 32% and intensity forecasts by 20% during the critical first two days of the forecast (Aberson and Franklin 1999).
Although this error is slightly higher than that of conventional dropsonde observations
, lidar observations are seen to be more representative of the model wind field because they are computed by averaging over a sampling volume of 5-10 km.