We examined air-sea fluxes and ocean response in four of the most intense TC cases in the Caribbean Sea--Hurricane Ivan (2004), Hurricane Emily (2005), Hurricane Dean (2007), and Hurricane Felix (2007)--using dropwindsonde
data, satellite SST, and OHC climatology from the Systematically Merged Atlantic Temperature and Salinity Climatology (SMARTS, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami).
Franklin, "Impact on Hurricane Track and Intensity Forecasts of GPS Dropwindsonde
Observations from the First-Season Flights of the NOAA Gulfstream-IV Jet Aircraft," Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society, vol.
Marks Jr., 1988: Dropwindsonde
and radar observations of the eye of Hurricane Gloria (1985).
Emanuel, 1993: An unmanned aircraft for dropwindsonde
deployment and hurricane reconnaissance.
Lin, 2013: Assessment of the ASCAT wind error characteristics by global dropwindsonde
Marks Jr., 1993: The kinematic structure of Hurricane Gloria (1985) determined from nested analyses of dropwindsonde
and Doppler radar data.
Valde, 2003: GPS dropwindsonde
wind profiles in hurricanes and their operational implications.
Nakazawa, 2011: The impact of dropwindsonde
observations on typhoon track forecasts in DOTSTAR and T-PARC.
Later, during the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Synoptic Flow Experiment between 1982 and 1996, aircraft-based dropwindsonde
observations were targeted around the TC in regions based on synoptic reasoning (Burpee et al.
Wind speed retrievals have been compared to a large set of dropwindsonde
data and show the GPS method to be capable of responding well to wind speeds of 40 m [s.sup.-1] or less (Katzberg et al.
2014) were used to compute the forecast sensitivity to the initial state, and these regions of high sensitivity were targeted for additional dropwindsonde
D., 2014: The impact of targeted dropwindsonde
observations on tropical cyclone intensity forecasts of four weak systems during PREDICT.