Lupus

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lupus

(lo͞o`pəs), noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. In lupus, known medically as lupus erythematosus, antibodies are produced against the individual's own cells, causing tissue inflammation and cell damage. Because the vascular and connective tissue of any body organ may be affected, various symptoms may result. Generalized symptoms include fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and a characteristic butterfly-shaped skin rash on the face. Heart, joint, and kidney disease are common (see nephritisnephritis
, inflammation of the kidney. The earliest finding is within the renal capillaries (glomeruli); interstitial edema is typically followed by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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). It is believed that the disease may be triggered by certain drugs or foreign proteins, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or extreme stress. The disease, which may range from mild to fatal, occurs commonly in young women. It is treated with immunosuppressive drugsimmunosuppressive drug,
any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodies. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor.
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 and steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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; autoimmune diseaseautoimmune disease,
any of a number of abnormal conditions caused when the body produces antibodies to its own substances. In rheumatoid arthritis, a group of antibody molecules called collectively RF, or rheumatoid factor, is complexed to the individual's own gamma globulin
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.

Bibliography

See R. G. Lahita and R. H. Phillips, Lupus: Everything You Need to Know (1998).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Lupus

(loo -pŭs) (Wolf) A constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus, lying partly in the Milky Way, with several stars of 2nd magnitude. There are many naked-eye double stars and several globular and open star clusters. Abbrev.: Lup; genitive form: Lupi; approx. position: RA 15.3h, dec –45°; area: 334 sq deg.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lupus

 

(or lupus vulgaris), the most severe and frequent form of skin tuberculosis. The causative agent of tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) may invade the skin from without after an injury, but much more frequently it comes from internal organs and lymph nodes affected by tuberculosis. The course and symptoms of the disease vary greatly because they are determined by the virulence of the causative agent, point of entry, location of the disease, and general condition of the patient. The first symptom of the disease is a hyperemic spot that lightens when pressed; a tubercle soon develops. Under the pressure of a glass slide, it turns pale, and the lesion shows through as a pale yellow spot (the “apple jelly” phenomenon). Because the tissue in the affected area loses its elasticity, the tubercle is easily injured and bleeds readily. The tubercles gradually coalesce, forming large plaques. While the center of the plaque heals, forming a white scar as thin as cigarette paper (tubercles may again appear there), increasing numbers of fresh tubercles appear at the periphery. The epidermis covering the plaques thins and desquamates. Sometimes the tubercles become ulcerous; ulcers with a tubercular base may also develop. Lupus generally affects the face (nose, cheeks, ears), the extremities, and, less commonly, the trunk. The mucous membranes of the nose and mouth are often affected. Lupus occurs more frequently in children. The chronic course of the disease may result in disfigurement (eversion of the eyelids, narrowing of the mouth and nares, etc.) and occasionally in malignant degeneration. Thanks to modern methods of treatment and close follow-up of the patients, lupus has become less common and its prognosis is better. The disease is treated with a complex of antituberculous drugs, vitamin D2, multiple vitamins, tonics, physical therapy, sunbaths, and climatotherapy.

REFERENCE

Neradov, L. A. “Tuberkulez kozhi.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po dermato-venerologii, vol. 2. Edited by S. T. Pavlov. Leningrad, 1961.

M. A. ROZENTUL


Lupus

 

(the Wolf), a constellation in the southern sky. Its brightest star is 2.3 in visual stellar magnitude. The most favorable conditions for viewing Lupus are in April and May. It is visible in the southern regions of the USSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lupus

[′lü·pəs]
(astronomy)
A southern constellation lying between Centaurus and Scorpius. Also known as Wolf.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

lupus

any of various ulcerative skin diseases
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus.
While SLE frequently has pulmonary involvement, drug-induced lupus rarely does with only a few case reports of hydralazine-induced pulmonary infiltrates or pneumonitis [2, 7-10].
Drug-induced lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies.
As well, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of drug-induced lupus with positive anti-dsDNA antibodies and, in addition, an exudative EPE.
Younger physicians might not be familiar with the association of hydralazine with drug-induced lupus, Dr.
Over the past two decades, global DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific DNA demethylation have been observed in T cells in patients with idiopathic lupus and drug-induced lupus. Gadd45a (Gadd45a/Gadd45) is a nuclear protein that plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability, DNA repair, and suppression of cell growth.
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, serum sickness-like reactions, and drug-induced lupus reactions can be caused by agents that are likely to be prescribed.
One reason for this is that approximately 15% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease being treated with these drugs develop anti-double-stranded DNA and anticardiolipin antibodies, and some develop drug-induced lupus, according to Dr.
* Drug-induced lupus, which does not generally affect the kidney or central nervous system and usually goes away when the drug is discontinued.
Fifty-seven (30%) patients had Sjogren syndrome; 50 (26.5%) had systemic lupus erythematosus; 7 (3.7%) had systemic lupus erythematosus and/or Sjogren syndrome; 11 (6%) had subacute cutaneous lupus, discoid lupus, drug-induced lupus, or neonatal lupus; 6 (3%) had mixed connective tissue disease; 15 (8.5%) had dermatomyositis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, or undifferentiated systemic disease; and 42 (21.3%) had a medical condition other than a systemic (undifferentiated) rheumatic disease (i.e., not Sjogren syndrome and/or any form of lupus, mixed connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis).
The emergence of immunogenicity as positive ANA, anti-dsDNA antibodies, and drug-induced lupus during anti TNF-therapy has been widely documented with varied frequency.
* Drug-induced lupus is caused by certain medications, the most common being: procainamide (Pronesyl), used for heart rhythm abnormalities; hydralazine (HydraZide), used for high blood pressure; and isoniazid (Nydrazid), used for tuberculosis.

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