Since this deformation is characterised by long-term manifestation with ensuing problems, drying shrinkage
is particularly problematic for concrete structures, especially reinforced (Biernacki et al., 2017).
The new system would require the reduction of the number of construction and contraction joints, elimination of steel bar reinforcement, and control of concrete cracking induced by temperature and drying shrinkage
BCSA cement has about half of the silicates as found in portland cement; such reduction drastically lowers the potential for drying shrinkage
. Also, the hydration of CSA is very water dependent.
The procedure of curing under rotation prevented particle sedimentation (Figure 7(d)) and reduced drying shrinkage
(Figure 8(a)) significantly in all the water content ranges tested (45-80 vol.%).
Alternatively, the long-term deflection of PSC bridges can be calculated by using the concrete creep coefficient and drying shrinkage
formulas given in various standards [3-5].
Among the results that stand out we find a lower rate of plasticity and drying shrinkage
, which results in better-quality elements.
Gilbert  distinguished several types of shrinkage: plastic shrinkage, chemical shrinkage, thermal shrinkage and drying shrinkage
, the last typically accounting for the largest proportion of the total long-term shrinkage in concrete and geopolymers.
Compared to control concrete samples, the compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and drying shrinkage
properties of the stabilized concrete are acceptable.
The ECC mixtures were cast using moulds size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm prism and 100mm x 100mm x 100mm cubes and prepared for compressive strength, drying shrinkage
and flexural strength tests.
For Bonavetti and Irassar (1994) accelerating cement hydration due to the effect of stone dust contributes to gain strength at early ages, and with this there are drying shrinkage
and a positive effect of filler, increased water retention and improved plasticity.
Unlike the autogenous shrinkage, the drying shrinkage
in RPC decreases with decrease in the water to binder ratio [10, 11].
In high-performance/high strength concrete of low w/c ratio, the early-age cracking canbe due to three processes occurring simultaneously, which are shrinkage (i.e., autogenous shrinkage and drying shrinkage
), hydrate heat development, and stress relaxation.