du Vigneaud, Vincent

du Vigneaud, Vincent

(dyo͞o vēn`yō), 1901–78, American biochemist, b. Chicago. He was professor of biochemistry and head of the department at George Washington Univ. school of medicine (1932–38) and at Cornell Univ. medical college (from 1938). His researches involved the chemistry of insulin, protein, and sulfur compounds, and the syntheses of penicillin (1946) and the B-vitamin biotin (1942). He was awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his identification and synthesis of two pituitary hormones, oxytocin, used medicinally in obstetrics, and vasopressin, used to treat diabetes.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Du Vigneaud, Vincent

 

Born May 18, 1901, in Chicago. American biochemist.

Du Vigneaud received a bachelor of science degree from the University of Illinois in 1923 and a doctorate degree from the medical school of the University of Rochester in 1927. He taught at the medical schools of Johns Hopkins University, the University of Edinburgh (Great Britain), and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Dresden, Germany). From 1929 to 1932 he was on the faculty of the biochemistry department at the University of Illinois and from 1932 to 1938 at George Washington University. In 1938 he became head of the department of biochemistry at the Cornell University school of medicine and in 1967, a professor in the chemistry department of that university. His principal works are in the study of the chemical structures of insulin and biotin, transmethylation, and the metabolism of amino acids. A number of his works were devoted to the synthesis of penicillin. Du Vigneaud determined the structures of and synthesized the posterior pituitary hormones vasopressin and oxytocin. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1955.

WORKS

A Trail of Research in Sulfur Chemistry and Metabolism and Related Fields. Ithaca, N. Y., 1952.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Du Vigneaud, Vincent

(1901–78) biochemist; born in Chicago. He was affiliated with Cornell University (1937–75). He synthesized penicillin (1946) and isolated and then synthesized the hormone oxytocin, elucidating its structure. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry (1955) for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.