duel

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duel,

prearranged armed fight with deadly weapons, usually swords or pistols, between two persons concerned with a point of honor. The duel may have originated in the wager of battle, an early mode of trial in which an accused person fought with his accuser under judicial supervision (see ordealordeal,
ancient legal custom whereby an accused person was required to perform a test, the outcome of which decided the person's guilt or innocence. By an ordeal, appeal was made to divine authority to decide the guilt or innocence of one accused of a crime or to choose between
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). In 887, Pope Stephen VI prohibited the judicial duel and all forms of ordeal. Wager of battle was abolished in France in the mid-16th cent., and the duel of honor in part took its place. This institution, which emerged in the Italian Renaissance, spread to France and then to Great Britain and other European countries. It evolved in the 16th cent. and was very closely linked with the code of chivalrychivalry
, system of ethical ideals that arose from feudalism and had its highest development in the 12th and 13th cent.

Chivalric ethics originated chiefly in France and Spain and spread rapidly to the rest of the Continent and to England.
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). Codified in various countries in the late 18th and early 19th cents., the duel of honor became a rare practice after World War I.

To initiate a duel the offended party would present a challenge to fight, which had to be accepted or the person challenged would be dishonored. Negotiations were conducted by seconds, who also observed the combat to see that all agreements of the complex ceremony were observed. The object of a duel was not necessarily to kill, and in most cases after the firing of a prescribed number of shots or drawing blood the fight would be stopped. Although dueling was opposed by the rulers and churches of various countries, it long persisted among aristocrats, army officers, and others. German students were especially noted for their duels. Duels were quite common in the United States, some fought by prominent Americans. For example, Alexander HamiltonHamilton, Alexander,
1755–1804, American statesman, b. Nevis, in the West Indies. Early Career

He was the illegitimate son of James Hamilton (of a prominent Scottish family) and Rachel Faucett Lavien (daughter of a doctor-planter on Nevis and the estranged
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 was killed in a duel with Aaron BurrBurr, Aaron,
1756–1836, American political leader, b. Newark, N.J., grad. College of New Jersey (now Princeton). Political Career

A brilliant law student, Burr interrupted his study to serve in the American Revolution and proved himself a valiant soldier in
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, and Andrew JacksonJackson, Andrew,
1767–1845, 7th President of the United States (1829–37), b. Waxhaw settlement on the border of South Carolina and North Carolina (both states claim him). Early Career

A child of the backwoods, he was left an orphan at 14.
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 took part in several duels. In the United States, dueling persisted longest in the Southern states and on the Western frontier. Dueling today has been made illegal by statute in most countries. Killing in the course of a duel is usually considered willful murder, and all persons aiding the principals are guilty with them.

Bibliography

See studies by J. Atkinson (1964), R. Baldrick (1965), V. G. Kiernan (1986), K. McAleer (1994), J. B. Freeman (2001), B. Holland (2003), and J. Landale (2006).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

duel

a prearranged combat with deadly weapons between two people following a formal procedure in the presence of seconds and traditionally fought until one party was wounded or killed, usually to settle a quarrel involving a point of honour
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

DUEL

(programming)
A front end to gdb by Michael Golan <mg@cs.princeton.edu>. DUEL implements a language designed for debugging C programs. It features efficient ways to select and display data items. It is normally linked into the gdb executable, but could stand alone. It interprets a subset of C in addition to its own language.

Version 1.10.

ftp://ftp.cs.princeton.edu/duel/.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
Here is a description of a duel that was conducted according to all the rules of dandyism between the English dandy Pelham and a French fop, both of whom were experienced duelists: "The Frenchman and his second were already waiting for us [here it is a deliberate insult; the norms of refined politeness dictate that both sides should arrive at the place of the duel at the exact same time; Onegin exceeded all that was permissible by being more than an hour late--Y.L.].
(Side note: More research revealed that over 1000 duelists were killed in New Orleans, and on average, only 1 in 14 people died in duels.
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Freeman shows how, in the early days of the American Republic, the duelists found themselves for the first time performing, as it were, before a wider audience.
"After his homicide," concluded Bulnes, "the duelist is usually acquitted ...
If one duelist killed another then all involved in that duel (the seconds and the surgeons) were charged with murder.
If you were a member of the gentry, a politician, an officer and even a journalist, you were a potential duelist and were encouraged to hone your shooting skills.
This sensitive poet and graceful duelist has been reborn as a blunt soldier and a man of action, much admired by other blunt soldiers and men of action.
They too worried about relations between ancient and modern knowledge and between individual and society, since many of their techniques better suited the lone duelist than the disciplined soldier.
There are many ways to shoot cowboy matches: Traditional, with fixed-sighted sixguns; Blackpowder, with the same sixguns with cartridges loaded with blackpowder; Duelist, using any sixgun but shooting one-handed; Gunfighter, with two sixguns, one in each hand, shooting in sequence; and Modern, using sixguns such as Ruger's Blackhawk with adjustable sights.
Not only does it ease the difficulty of firing a single-action sixgun two-handed, it makes it possible for women to compete in the official ladies' "Duelist" category recently introduced by the Single Action Shooting Society.