duel

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duel

duel, prearranged armed fight with deadly weapons, usually swords or pistols, between two persons concerned with a point of honor. The duel may have originated in the wager of battle, an early mode of trial in which an accused person fought with his accuser under judicial supervision (see ordeal). In 887, Pope Stephen VI prohibited the judicial duel and all forms of ordeal. Wager of battle was abolished in France in the mid-16th cent., and the duel of honor in part took its place. This institution, which emerged in the Italian Renaissance, spread to France and then to Great Britain and other European countries. It evolved in the 16th cent. and was very closely linked with the code of chivalry). Codified in various countries in the late 18th and early 19th cents., the duel of honor became a rare practice after World War I.

To initiate a duel the offended party would present a challenge to fight, which had to be accepted or the person challenged would be dishonored. Negotiations were conducted by seconds, who also observed the combat to see that all agreements of the complex ceremony were observed. The object of a duel was not necessarily to kill, and in most cases after the firing of a prescribed number of shots or drawing blood the fight would be stopped. Although dueling was opposed by the rulers and churches of various countries, it long persisted among aristocrats, army officers, and others. German students were especially noted for their duels. Duels were quite common in the United States, some fought by prominent Americans. For example, Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr, and Andrew Jackson took part in several duels. In the United States, dueling persisted longest in the Southern states and on the Western frontier. Dueling today has been made illegal by statute in most countries. Killing in the course of a duel is usually considered willful murder, and all persons aiding the principals are guilty with them.

Bibliography

See studies by J. Atkinson (1964), R. Baldrick (1965), V. G. Kiernan (1986), K. McAleer (1994), J. B. Freeman (2001), B. Holland (2003), and J. Landale (2006).

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duel

a prearranged combat with deadly weapons between two people following a formal procedure in the presence of seconds and traditionally fought until one party was wounded or killed, usually to settle a quarrel involving a point of honour
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

DUEL

(programming)
A front end to gdb by Michael Golan <mg@cs.princeton.edu>. DUEL implements a language designed for debugging C programs. It features efficient ways to select and display data items. It is normally linked into the gdb executable, but could stand alone. It interprets a subset of C in addition to its own language.

Version 1.10.

ftp://ftp.cs.princeton.edu/duel/.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
References in classic literature ?
During the conflict, I had talked a little, now and then, with a young gentleman of the White Cap Corps, and he had mentioned that he was to fight next--and had also pointed out his challenger, a young gentleman who was leaning against the opposite wall smoking a cigarette and restfully observing the duel then in progress.
The duel presently began and in the same furious way which had marked the previous one.
"Oh, ours is a theological quarrel," replied Aramis, making a sign to D'Artagnan to keep secret the cause of their duel.
The sun was in its zenith, and the spot chosen for the scene of the duel was exposed to its full ardor.
Absorbed in his studies, Barbicane, in his turn forgetful of the duel, had seen and heard nothing.
"Duel! You've come to talk about a duel, too!" The prince burst out laughing, to the great astonishment of Keller.
It struck him that the idea of the duel might not have occurred to Keller alone, but that his lesson in the art of pistol-loading might have been not altogether accidental!
"It's even certain that I should have done the same, then why this duel, this murder?
"Then allow me to express your regrets, and I am sure your opponent will accept them," said Nesvitski (who like the others concerned in the affair, and like everyone in similar cases, did not yet believe that the affair had come to an actual duel).
But now the duel between Gahan and the Orange Panthan was on and the decision of the next move was no longer in other hands than theirs.
Short and to the point was the duel that decided possession of the Orange Chief's fourth.
"But I am going to fight a duel with this gentleman."