Duke

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Duke

 

among ancient Germanic peoples, a duke (Herzog) was the elected military leader of a tribe (Latin dux). In Western Europe during the early medieval period, duke meant a tribal prince; during the period of feudal fragmentation, the title signified a major landholder (in the hierarchy of military vassalage, the duke occupied the second most important place after the king). After feudal fragmentation was overcome, duke was one of the highest titles of nobility.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In a statement, Moore said she would not have filed charges against Dukes had the statements from Texas House officials about travel reimbursement policy been clearer from the start.
He said the new Dukes battalion would have at least the same number of troops as the current regiment.
Dukes' cell phone indicated activity near downtown Austin, Texas, which puts her within range of the Capitol building," prosecutors wrote.
It is believed the Dukes could merge with the Green Howards and the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment.
In their Wednesday filing, prosecutors chronicled 19 "extraneous acts" they intended to share with a jury about Dukes' behavior as a state lawmaker, including that she had been recorded absent for more than half of roll calls taken during the 2017 legislative session and that she once admitted during a public hearing to be "full of morphine."
"It is truly not dignifying this new low that such character assassination has hit in this web woven to influence a court of public opinion," Dukes wrote in a Facebook post Monday night.
Those charges allege that Dukes used her legislative staff to work on the African-American Community Heritage Festival and be a live-in nanny for her daughter.
In April, the Texas Rangers joined the criminal probe into Dukes. The Rangers confirmed to the Tribune in late September that its investigation was complete and had been presented to the Travis County District Attorney's office.
Dukes missed much of the 2015 legislative session and has said her absences were related to her health issues stemming from the car accident.
The Texas Tribune asked the Texas Department of Public Safety for copies of the data from Dukes' security pass swiped at the Capitol, but the agency has refused to release it, citing security concerns.
The Texas Tribune reported in February that the State Auditor's Office had launched an investigation after Dukes' then chief of staff, Mike French, asked whether it was legal for the Austin Democrat to ask staff to work on the annual African-American Heritage Festival.